BIO 301 - Exam One Material (Fundamental Terminology and Concepts)

Question Answer
Simplest Two Stages in Cell Cycle 1. Copying of DNA
2. Splitting of a cell
Splitting of two cells into equal half is defined in biology as… Binary Fission
In what part of the bacterial cell, genes are encoded? In bacteria, the hereditary information- that is the genes that specify bacteria – is encoded in a single circle of DNA, attached at one point to the inner surface of the plasma membrane almost like a rope attached to the inner wall of the tent
How bacterial cell divides? Bacteria divided by binary fission after the DNA has replicated. Fission begins between the points where the two copies of DNA are bound to the plasma membrane
In simplest terms, what is the difference between cell mitosis and meiosis? MITOSIS is the mechanism of cell division that occurs in an organism's somatic cells (non reproductive cells)
MEIOSIS divides DNA in germ cells, that participate in sexual reproduction
The biological system which explains the continuous process of cell division is known as… Complex Cell Cycle
What is the behavior of chromosomes during the interphase? During the biological process known as condensation, chromosomes replicate and then begin to wind up tightly. Notably, daughter chromosomes are held together by a complex of proteins called cohesin.
Looking at cell division phases, at which phase the cell growth is assessed? The G1 checkpoint is where the more complex eukaryotes typically arrest the cell cycle given that environmental conditions make cell division impossible or if the cell passes into G0 for an extended period
Looking at cell division phases, at which phase the DNA replication occurs? DNA replication is assessed at the G2 checkpoint. Passing of this checkpoint the cell initiates many molecular processes that signal the beginning of mitosis
Looking at cell division phases, at which phase the mitosis is assessed? Mitosis is assessed during the M phase.
In most simple terms, what is the operational definition of 'disorder of cells'? Cancer!!
A cluster of cancerous cells is defined as… Tumor!!
Cells that leave the tumor and spread throughout the body at the distant sites… Metastases
Applying map of general acceptable principles… deductive reasoning
Way of discovering general principles by careful examination… inductive reasoning
Five most common biological themes… 1. the flow of energy
2. evolution
3. cooperation
4. structure determines function
5. homeostasis
Scientific investigation starts with… Observation
If a hypothesis is true, biologist (or scientist in general) can make…. Prediction
A guess the observable phenomena accounts for… Hypothesis
Testing hypothesis fundamentally means… Performing Test
A collection of hypotheses that has been tested many times form… Hypothesis
Control Experiment… A portion of experiment where variable is not altered

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