BIO 301 Genetics Fundamentals Looking a MEIOSIS (Hickman-'Zoology' based)

Question Answer
Offspring inherits from its parents a set of coded information known as… Genes
Ova and sperm… Sex Cells or Gametes
Pair of chromosomes in cells also known as… Homologous Chromosomes
The number of chromosomes in a single set which varies among different species is known as… Haploid
After fertilization..each gamete contributes its set of chromosomes to a newly formed cell also known as… Zygote
The number of chromosomes in two complete sets is called the… Diploid Number
In most simple terms meiosis: separates the chromosomes of each homologous pair
Meiosis ultimately produces… four genetically unique cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as in the parent
Meiosis is derived from Greek word…. meaning 'lessening'
According to recent research scientists divide meiosis into 3 stages: G1 (growth one) phase; Synthesis phase (S phase); Growth 2 (G Phase)
In what phase the most unique features of meiosis takes place? Consider the first meiotic division! 1. During prophase one lie with side by side contact or synapsis forming bivalents 2. During metaphase one – bivalents align at spindle equator 3. chromosomes of former bivalents move to different poles
Genetic recombination between two chromosomes.. during prophase members of each homologous pair undergo synapsis to bivalent which permits genetic recommendation between paired homologous chromosomes!
Ultimately, what are the final products of meiosis? By the end of second meiotic division, the cells have a haploid number of chromosomes, and each chromatid of the original tetrad exists in the separate nucleus. Evidently, in female gametogenesis, only 1 out of 4 products become a functional gamete.
Species used in the first discovery of meiosis by German Biologist Oscar Hertwig Sea Urchins….
Compare function of meiosis and mitosis MITOSIS: Cellular reproduction
MEIOSIS: Sexual reproduction (sex cell reproduction)
Compare crossing over in meiosis and mitosis MITOSIS: rarely
MEIOSIS: Yes, typically between each pair of homologous chromosomes
Compare meiosis and mitosis – genetic similarity of produced cells MEIOSIS: NO
Compare mitosis and meiosis end result: Meiosis: 4 cells- each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent
Mitosis: 2 cells – having the same number of chromosomes as the parent

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