It is indicated by the presence of a double membrane surrounding the endymbiont.
An organism containing one endosymbiont engulfs another organism, and that organism becomes an endosymbiont.
It is indicated by the presence of a nucleomorph.
An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.
It is indicated by the presence of a mixotroph.
species of red algae
Cellular slime molds have haploid zygotes.
Cellular slime molds have fruiting bodies that function in sexual reproduction.
Cellular slime molds form masses when food is scarce, but their cells remain separated.
Cytoplasmic streaming helps distribute nutrients and oxygen in cellular slime molds.
Some protists are multicellular.
The kingdom Protista is polyphyletic.
Some protists are more closely related to plants, animals, or fungi than they are to other protists.
Some protists are as small as prokaryotes.
The second and third answers are correct.
Dinoflagellates protect the corals from UV radiation.
Dinoflagellates protect the corals from pathogenic bacteria.
Dinoflagellates provide nutrients from the products of photosynthesis to the corals in exchange for a safe place to live.
Dinoflagellates attract zooplankton and other prey that the corals eat.
Dinoflagellates secrete the calcium carbonate that forms the “exoskeleton” of coral animals.
they showed that organic molecules such as amino acids could be produced from inorganic molecules
they showed how polymers could form spontaneously on a clay substrate
they produced the first protocells
they showed how radiometric dating could be used to give the absolute ages of rocks and fossils
proved the endosymbiotic theory
from infoldings of the plasma membrane, coupled with mutations of genes for proteins in energy-transfer reactions
from engulfed, originally free-living proteobacteria
by secondary endosymbiosis
when a protoeukaryote engaged in a symbiotic relationship with a protocell
from the nuclear envelope folding outward and forming mitochondrial membranes
Two of the responses above are correct.
multicellular photosynthetic prokaryote.
fungal photosynthetic eukaryote.
colonial photosynthetic eukaryote.
colonial eukaryotic fungus.
colonial photosynthetic prokaryote.
cellular adhesion and intercellular communication.
cellular migration and intercellular communication.
cellular fusion and regeneration.
photosynthesis and cellular migration.
cellular migration and cellular adhesion.
dinoflagellates and diatoms
chlorophytes and radiolarians
apicomplexans and forams
gymnamoebas and slime molds
diplomonads and parabasalids
RNA can replicate more accurately than DNA.
RNA could have evolved into DNA.
RNA has both information storage and catalytic properties.
All the proto-cells on early Earth contained RNA.
RNA contains uracil in place of thymine
rhizarians–morphologically diverse group that includes amoebas with threadlike pseudopodia
diatoms–important producers in aquatic communities
red algae–acquired plastids by secondary endosymbiosis
apicomplexans–parasites with intricate life cycles
diplomonads–protists with modified mitochondria
occurred only once, in the common ancestor of all multicellular eukaryotes.
occurred only once, in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.
occurred only once, in the animal lineage.
is not documented by the fossil record.
occurred independently in several different eukaryotic lineages.
evolution from mitochondria.
fusion of plastids.
origin of the plastids from archaea.
budding of the plastids from the nuclear envelope.
mitochondrial DNA is less similar to prokaryotic DNA than is plastid DNA.
all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas many eukaryotes do not have plastids.
mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, whereas plastids utilize their own ribosomes.
the products of photosynthesis could not be metabolized without mitochondrial enzymes.
without mitochondrial CO2 production, photosynthesis could not occur.