Bio-ethanol fuel has been used through these times and produced in many topographic points specifically in Brazil and United States which contributes to the 87. 1 % bio-ethanol production in the universe. Besides from being eco-friendly. cheap and less toxic. it is more preferable as a fuel for the stuffs used are the 1s easy to happen. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bio_ethanol )
As different from other fuels. bio-ethanol fuel is a signifier of renewable energy because the energy is generated utilizing resources which can non be depleted. It is normally obtained from the transition of carbon-based feedstock which is considered as a renewable energy for it gets the energy from the Sun by agencies of the procedure of photosynthesis. The photosynthesis itself performs due to the energy of the Sun. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bio_ethanol )
In the production of bio ethyl alcohol fuel. the procedure of anaerobiotic respiration is included in the procedure of agitation. In this procedure. the glucose ( C6H12O6 ) from the feedstock is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid through glycolysis. With the presence of barm molecules from the barm ( Saccharomyces serevisicie ) . the pyruvic acid is broken down into Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 ) and Acetaldehyde. The ethanal so acts as acceptor of the H which enables to bring forth a molecule of ethyl intoxicant ( C2H6O ) . This intoxicant serves as a bio ethyl alcohol fuel for it comes from a carbon-based feedstock.
Statement of the Problem
In our society. commuters and fuel-consumers usage non merely one sort of fuel. Some use ordinary fuel. leaded or leadless but bio ethyl alcohol fuel is the known cheapest and eco-friendly fuel of all. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. defender. co. uk/environment/2007/mar/31/motoring. money )
The usage of bio ethyl alcohol is non new presents. In fact. there are many fluctuations of bio ethyl alcohol fuel through the past times. There are some that perform different bio ethyl alcohol fuel from other carbon-based feedstock. As a new statement. the wastes of was used as the carbon-based feedstock to bring forth bio ethyl alcohol fuel. The desquamations were so abundant in our society. We can see them obviously that people trash them. As it continue. the desquamations are inordinate. Good thing it is biodegradable so it does non impact pollution.
The research workers attempted whether the banana desquamations can be used as the feedstock to bring forth bio ethyl alcohol fuel.
Significance of the Study
Bio-ethanol fuel has different advantages and importance to our economic system. At the same clip. it helps people to be originative in footings of being eco-friendly. Harmonizing to Nuffield of Bioethics. Bio-ethanol fuel helps people in different ways. It is low-cost. You can even do bio ethyl alcohol fuel from resources around you. Meaning. a large amount of money is non required to bring forth this fuel. It is besides helpful in footings of people’s wellness. In many surveies. bio ethyl alcohol is proven to let go of less toxic chemicals compared to commercially-distributed fuel. It releases less hydrocarbon which can be harmful to us. There are other fuels that have harmful chemicals that can impact the organic structure system specifically. the lungs and the tegument. Besides based on Nuffield of Bioethics. this fuel can be described as an eco-friendly affair because of its chief constituent. a carbon-based feedstock which is an organic affair. This type of fuel contributes to our environment for it lessens air pollution by non let go ofing harmful chemicals which are present in black fume. Hypothesis
This survey focuses on the quality of bio ethyl alcohol fuel out of banana desquamations. The void hypothesis ( Ho ) states that bio ethyl alcohol fuel would non be of good quality in footings of firing continuance and substances it releases than other fuels. The alternate hypothesis ( Ha ) states that bio ethyl alcohol fuel would be of good lighting quality and be better than other fuels in footings of firing continuance and substances it releases.
Scope and Restrictions
This experimentation and procedure trades with the production of bio ethyl alcohol fuel out of fermented banana desquamations and the comparative analysis of the fuel from other fuels in footings of firing continuance and chemical composing during smoke emanation.
This requires broad country and infinite because the banana desquamations had undergone through the procedure of agitation. vaporization and self-condensation. The engagement of fire in this survey and experimentation is included so a broad country is more preferable.
As for now. the bio ethyl alcohol fuel from banana desquamations can non be tested in vehicles due to miss of tools and installations which will necessitate large sum.
In the procedure. a long clip is needed for the procedure will undergo self-condensation. Meaning. the procedure will take long in the room temperature. Review of Related Literature and Surveies
Bio ethyl alcohol fuel has been used since. This sort of fuel has been tested through varied ingredients. tools and processes that somehow change the consequence and quality of the bio ethyl alcohol fuel. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ethanol-Fuel )
In some states. bio ethyl alcohol fuel is used to power cars. vehicles and machineries. Bio ethyl alcohol used in cars consumes about 51 % higher than ordinary gasolene which consequences to give somewhat better torsion end product. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ethanol-fuel )
There are different harvests that can be made into bio ethyl alcohol fuel. These substances which have the energy came chiefly from the sunshine. Some of the stuffs which make a good quality of bio ethyl alcohol fuel are maize. sugar cane. and carnal fecal matters. Because bio ethyl alcohol fuel is normally obtained from carbon-based feedstock. manufacturers were the best beginning of bio ethyl alcohol fuel. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bio_ethanol )
Besides from the organic substances which make the bio ethyl alcohol fuel. the procedure in which ingredients undergo is besides one of the factors that may change the quality of bio ethyl alcohol fuel. It is the procedure in which people populating in urbanised zones allow the organic stuff agitation in a long clip. In these times of agitation. the compartment where the organic affair agitations is connected to another compartment. As the consequence of clip. the compartment produces flammable gas which subsequently turns to liquid fuel. With the usage of the new engineering. another procedure is created which is used most. Alternatively of fermenting the organic affair. for hebdomads and months. it is fermented for some clip merely. Then. the organic affair undergoes the procedure of vaporization and condensation. Bio Ethanol from Cow Fecal matters
Students in Kapayapaan National High School made another fluctuation of bio ethyl alcohol last January. 2012. The usage of fecal matters of cow serves as the stuff of the bio ethyl alcohol fuel. Same procedure was used. which is the procedure of vaporization and condensation. The bio ethyl alcohol from cow was compared with kerosine and an ordinary gasolene. It was found out that bio ethanol emits white fume and so the other fuel emits dark fume. Bio Ethanol from Sugar Cane in Brazil
Brazil is the most productive in bio ethanol fuel-making. In 2007. they started to bring forth bio ethyl alcohol fuel out of sugar cane. Until the twelvemonth of 2010. they remain as the most productive. As for now. there are no light vehicles in Brazil which runs pure gasolene. Sooner. Brazil aims to do all of their vehicles to run utilizing bio ethyl alcohol fuel. Brazil uses sugar cane. specifically the bagasse which is the hempen affair after the sugar cane had undergone the procedure of juice extraction. In the devising of this sugar cane. bio ethyl alcohol is rather different from the traditional and conventional manner. After reaping. the sugar cane undergoes to the milling and refinement to pull out the largest sum of saccharose which makes and releases energy. The consequence of the milling and refinement will undergo following to the procedure of agitation. In this agitation. the add-on of barm will do it possible to transform to ethanol.
This agitation varies from four to twelve hours which consequences to the production of 7-10 % of intoxicant content which makes it flammable. With the usage of different intoxicant boiling points. the ethyl alcohol undergoes to the warming procedure which allows the solid constituents to be separated. During the procedure of warming. the container is connected to another container by a tubing. This tubing allows the procedure of condensation which makes ethyl alcohol consequence to fuel. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bio_ethanol ) Bio Ethanol Out of Pig Poo in United Kingdom
In United Kingdom. hog manure was used to bring forth bio ethyl alcohol. The procedure that was used was called anaerobiotic digestion – digestion in absence of O. This procedure produces methane which is siphoned off. clean and filtered. Bio ‘Lec in North Carolina
North Carolina besides uses bio ethyl alcohol. But the difference in this. they use bio ethyl alcohol as the beginning of some power workss. They produce first the scientific discipline of doing the fuel and so transform it to electricity. ( World Wide Web. thebioenergysite. com/news/7125 ) They named the ethyl alcohol as “Bio ‘Lec” coming from the combination of the words “bio ethanol” and “electricity. ” To do the fuel work. they use generators to transform the fuel into electricity. In order to avoid pollution by the usage of fuel. the Bio ‘Lec is cleaned and dehydrated. As for the procedure. the conventional manner was used in order to bring forth it. Corn Bio Ethanol in United States of America
Other ingredient for bio ethyl alcohol is maize. The usage of maize in bio ethyl alcohol initiated from the United States of America which is the 2nd in the most productive states in footings of ethanol-production. The find of maize as a bio ethyl alcohol is sensible. USA finds options for the alternate fuel for the ordinary fuel monetary value at those times increase. They besides discovered it out when they are happening options when they run out of useable fuel. As for pollution. there are trials turn outing that maize bio ethyl alcohol emits fewer nursery gases. By this production. a job somehow stroked the households in USA. The monetary values of maize and other grains increased for it is someway a necessity for the households which uses this sort of bio ethyl alcohol. With the high demand of these grains. the monetary value of maize increased dramatically. ( World Wide Web. nuffieldbioethics. org/sites/default/files/files/1_5_Biofuels_case_studies. pdf ) Bio Ethanol from Palm Oil in Malaysia
Another sort of bio ethyl alcohol uses palm oil. This is used in Malaysia. Malaysia has a national policy to advance renewable energy. This is the root of the production of bio ethyl alcohol. As like other manufacturers of bio ethyl alcohol. the same processs was used. The chief difference is the ingredient used which is the palm oil. Bio Ethanol from Pineapple Peelings
As a waste from Ananas comosus. Ananas comosus Peel still contains high saccharides and glucose which makes it a really good beginning of bio ethyl alcohol. As it differs to the last surveies. these pineapple desquamations were fermented for months. This is made the same as the traditional manner of doing this bio ethyl alcohol.
In some states. bio ethyl alcohol fuel is used to power cars. vehicles and machineries. Bio ethyl alcohol used in cars consumes about 51 % higher than ordinary gasolene which consequences to give somewhat better torsion end product. ( en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ethanol-fuel ) Sea Oil Fuel with 10 % Bio Ethanol
Bio ethyl alcohol is besides used even in our state. A large company of gasolene. viz. Sea Oil. is utilizing bio ethyl alcohol fuel. They mix 10 % bio ethyl alcohol fuel to the existent gasolene so the monetary values of their gasolene are so cheaper than other gasolene companies. The quality of the gasolene somewhat differs. As a consequence. other consumers prefer Sea Oil gasolene for it is: ( 1 ) cheaper ( 2 ) better quality and ( 3 ) eco-friendly. Methodology and Research Design
Location of the Study
This survey was conducted in Phase V. Villa de Calamba. Brgy. Lamesa in Calamba. Laguna. The analysis of the chemical composing of the fuel was done in LTO Emission Test in Halang. Calamba. Laguna. This survey prefers a broad country because the warming procedure of the fermented banana desquamations needs an unfastened topographic point to forestall fire accidents. Instruments
The banana desquamations assorted with barm was fermented in a Sn can or a container with screen to do certain of the absence of O connected to another little container through a glass or metallic tubing. The containers should non hold holes to forestall O to come in the agitation procedure.
After the procedure of agitation. from one to two hebdomads. the fermented banana desquamations underwent the procedure of vaporization of the liquid inside by heating the Sn can. The Sn can and the other little container was elevated form the land for the wood coal was placed under the can. The bio ethyl alcohol fuel will be tested by continuance by puting it in a cotton ball. The cotton ball with bio ethyl alcohol was fired. This procedure tested the continuance and darkness of the fume produced by bio ethyl alcohol. The continuance and the darkness of the fume emitted by kerosine and Diesel will besides be tested and compared with bio ethyl alcohol. Besides. the bio ethyl alcohol was tested for the chemical composing emitted when it was fired. The procedure was besides done to kerosene and diesel. Data Gathering
After the three fuels had been placed each in a cotton ball and fired. the research workers took note of the continuance of the fuels by seconds. The continuance was so compared to each other by the usage of statistical analysis.
The fume emanation was besides tested for the presence of inordinate hydrocarbon. The fuels were tested twice. for twenty-second and thirty-second analysis. The informations were gathered with the aid of LTO Emission Test. Statistical Treatment of Data
The usage of ANOVA or the Analysis of Variance was used in the survey to analyse the difference of the continuance and the sum of hydrocarbon of the fuels.
Presentation. Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Duration of Fire
To acquire the continuance of each of the fuel. the fuels were tested utilizing a cotton ball. adding 10 beads each of the designated fuel. After acquiring the clip. each fuel stood to assorted continuance and clip. The research workers held three tests to compare and see the difference.
The Bio Ethanol gained 87 seconds in the first test. 90 seconds for the 2nd and 85 seconds for the last test. Likewise. the Kerosene resulted to 65. 59 and 53 seconds consecutively. Last. the Diesel took 84. 81 and 72 seconds before it was burned. These informations were analyzed to see the difference utilizing the statistical analysis.
Before the calculation for the value of F for the informations. two hypotheses for the ANOVA were made. The void hypothesis ( Ho ) states that there was no important difference between the three set of informations from the continuance of bio ethyl alcohol. kerosine and Diesel ( x1 = x2 = x3 ) . Consequently. the alternate hypothesis ( Ha ) states that there is a important difference between the three set of informations ( x1 ? x2 ? x3 ) .
Based from the computed value utilizing ANOVA at 5 % degree of assurance. the value of F is greater than the critical value which is 5. 14. Meaning. the void hypothesis is accepted while the alternate hypothesis of the analysis is rejected. Chemical Composition of Smoke Emitted
The fuels were besides tested in footings of chemical composing of the fume emitted. It was held in LTO. They assisted the research workers to farther analyze the composing of the fuel. The fuels are detected to incorporate sums of hydrocarbon in ppm ( parts per million ) .
These are the hydrocarbon findings in each of the fuels. Each of the fuels was analyzed by ANOVA.
The Bio Ethanol released 159 ppm in the 30-second test and 127 ppm in the 20-second test. The kerosine gained 372 ppm and 336 ppm consecutively. Last. the Diesel emitted 324 ppm and 336 ppm for the 30-second and 20-second test. These informations were besides analyzed utilizing the ANOVA to see if there was difference between the set of informations from the emitted hydrocarbon. Again. before the calculation for the value of F for the informations. two hypotheses for the ANOVA were made. The void hypothesis ( Ho ) states that there was no important difference between the three set of informations from the sum of hydrocarbon emitted by the bio ethyl alcohol. kerosine and Diesel ( x1 = x2 = x3 ) . Consequently. the alternate hypothesis ( Ha ) states that there is a important difference between the three set of informations ( x1 ? x2 ? x3 ) .
Based from the computed value utilizing ANOVA at 5 % degree of assurance. the value of F is greater than the critical value which is 9. 55. Meaning. the void hypothesis is accepted while the alternate hypothesis of the analysis is rejected.
Summary. Conclusion and Recommendations
As the research workers held their experimentations on happening if there was difference between the continuance of the fuels. the Analysis of Variance stated that the value of F is greater than the critical value ( F & gt ; chromium ) . Therefore. the void hypothesis of the continuance of the fuels was accepted and the alternate hypothesis was rejected. Therefore. there is no important difference between the set of informations which came from the continuance of the bio ethyl alcohol. Diesel and kerosine.
Without farther analysis of the information. the bio ethyl alcohol fuel had a longer continuance of fire than Diesel and kerosine which comes from the average continuance of the fuels. On the other subdivision of this survey. the hydrocarbon findings. the ANOVA revealed that the value of F is besides greater than the critical value ( F & gt ; chromium ) . Therefore. the void hypothesis of the chemical composing was accepted and the alternate hypothesis was rejected. The research workers concluded that there is besides no important difference between the information from the hydrocarbon emitted in each of the fuel.
Based on the mean of the emitted hydrocarbon in different fuel. the bio ethyl alcohol had less. Therefore. it is safer to utilize than kerosine and/or Diesel. The presence of hydrocarbon in these fuels suggests that excessively much usage of them might besides be harmful.
This survey accepts the alternate hypothesis ( Ha ) and rejects the void hypothesis ( Ho ) . The difference between the fuels are rejected but by analyzing the mean of each of the fuel. we can reason that the bio ethanol out of fermented banana desquamations have a good quality in footings of firing continuance and substances it releases than other fuels.
The research workers recommend to the following research workers to add more different sort of fuel to be exact in footings of happening their difference. Following. we would wish to urge that the farther analysis of the other composing of the fuels is included such as CO2 and Oil Temperature.