Bio Final 12, 14, 15

An embryo that develops within a protected environment
Which of the following characteristics do most plants share with land animals?
They are wind-pollinated.
Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms?
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They use the raw material for biosynthesis
Why do insectivorous plants trap insects?
hyphae; fungus
Branches are to a tree as __________ are to a __________.
Dodder is a parasitic plant that almost completely lacks chlorophyll and gets its sugar from a host plant.
What is unique about dodder?
They are the closest living relative to plants.
Which of the following about coleochaetes is TRUE?
There has been a trend toward gametophyte dependence on the sporophyte.
Over the evolutionary history of plants:
grape juice and yeast; wine
Flowers are to fruits as __________ are to __________.
None of the above.
Which of the following reasons explains why conifers are the longest-lived trees?
Having a way to move on their own
Which of the following is not a mechanism of seed dispersal?
angiosperms tend to rely on animal pollinators, whereas gymnosperms tend to rely on wind pollination.
Angiosperms and gymnosperms differ from each other in that:
These organisms are the size of a pinhead and only one-cell layer thick. They are believed to be the closest relative of plants. What are they called?
All of the above.
Which of the following is a likely way in which plants increase dispersal of their fruit?
In the plant kingdom, all the different species are descended from a single common ancestor. What is the correct term that describes this type of lineage?
The pollen-producing structure in an angiosperm flower is called the __________.
All of the above are key challenges of stationary living.
Which one of the following is a key challenge of stationary living?
Pine trees
Which is of the following is NOT an example of a group of angiosperms?
None of the above.
What NEW evolutionary innovation is seen in conifers that is absent in more primitive plants?
the photosynthetic part of a lichen
Which of the following is NOT a fungus?
the fusion of a sperm cell with the egg, and another with two endosperm nuclei.
“Double fertilization” in angiosperm plants refers to:
Male cones release pollen, pollen grains release sperm, fertilization, female cones release seeds
Which of the following correctly orders the sequence of events in the life cycle of a gymnosperm?
None of the above.
Which of the following substances is INCORRECTLY matched to its utilization in plants?
None of the above.
Which of the following is TRUE about seed plants?
To signal other plants to increase their production defensive chemicals
Some plants release methyl jasmonate (MJ) when they are injured. Which is a likely reason for doing this?
Mosses and ferns rely on liquid water for fertilization, whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization.
Mosses and ferns differ in their reproductive strategies from gymnosperms and angiosperms in which of the following ways?
The first plants did not develop a vascular system.
Which is the best brief description of the vascular system found in the very first terrestrial plants?
All of the above.
Which of the following is TRUE about the endosperm?
produces the haploid gametes of a fern.
A prothallus:
The first and fourth choices are both true.
(The waxy layer that protects the plants from drying)(The material that makes leaves shiny)
What is the cuticle?
The third and fourth choices are correct.
(Seed plants and reptiles have developed structures such as cuticles and impermeable skin to minimize desiccation.)(Reptiles and seed plants have developed structures that house their gametes and protect them from the surrounding environment)
In terms of their adaptation to living on land, how are reptiles similar to the seed plants?
A female cone contains ovules on the protruding scales; a male cone releases pollen grains that are dispersed via wind.
Which of the following statements about male and female cones is TRUE?
Which of the following is a significant new challenge plants faced in moving to land that they did not face in their aquatic environment?
Parasitic plant
Which of the following most accurately describes Dodder?
Their seeds are dispersed via the wind.
Which of the following statements about ferns is incorrect?
This statement is true; algae only live directly in water or on very moist land surfaces and are therefore not plants.
Which of the following best explains the following statement: “Algae are not plants”?
The first, second, and third choices are all characteristic of big-bang reproduction.
Which of the following is characteristic of big-bang reproduction?
Because constraints limit evolution, life histories are characterized by trade-offs between investments in growth, reproduction, and _______.
Which of the following represents the growth rate of a population?
If both populations are stable, then the pair of elephants and the pair of rabbits will leave the same number of offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce.
On average, which leaves more offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce: a pair of elephants or a pair of rabbits?
The maximum sustainable yield for a population is a useful management guideline for harvesting plant products such as timber, but it is not helpful for managing animal populations.
Which of the following statements about maximum sustainable yield is false?
Growth for reproduction
Which of the following is a major tradeoff in life histories?
mutant alleles that cause adverse health effects later in life become more common in a population.
There are many causes of death due to aging in humans. This is because:
The cost of reproductive investment and the likelihood of survival to reproduce repeatedly
Which of the following factors most influences why a particular species has evolved to follow a particular life history strategy?
None of the above
Dr. David Reznick has studied life history evolution in guppies that live in streams in Trinidad. Guppies are found in two different types of habitat: sites where predation is higher, and sites where predation is low. Which of the following life history characteristics would you expect to evolve in a guppy population living in a high-predation site?
In a population exhibiting logistic growth, the rate of population growth is greatest when N is:
lower after the organisms survive beyond the earliest age groups.
The death rate of organisms in a population exhibiting a type III survivorship curve is:
the growth rate will approach zero.
In a population, as N approaches K, the logistic growth equation predicts that:
has been achieved in the laboratory.
Life extension:
Type I: Tend to produce a large amount of offspring with little investment: Frogs
Which of the following survivorship curve type is incorrectly matched to its description and/or characteristic organism?
All of the above.
Which of the following is a trade-off in life history strategies?
The greater the investment in reproduction, the longer a species is likely to live.
Which of the following is NOT true about life history patterns in general?
Their rate of population growth is low.
Which of the following characteristics is associated with a species whose life history strategy has a greater longevity and survival rate?
fruit flies
The extension of a normal lifespan has been scientifically achieved in _____
The generation time was increased to 6 weeks maximum.
Experiments where the longevity of fruit flies was increased yielded insight into longevity and forced evolution. Which of the following statements pertaining to these experiments is FALSE?
density-dependent factor.
Disease is spread more quickly between individuals who live in close proximity, such as in a nesting colony of penguins. Disease can be considered a(n):
age more slowly.
Those species whose risk of death is low, would also be expected to:
All of the above exemplify the difference between a population and an individual.
Which of the following statements best exemplifies the difference between a population and an individual?
Some countries have more resources than their populations currently can use.
Which of the following is TRUE about estimating human carrying capacity?
It is higher for a population of porcupines than for a population of guinea pigs.
Which of the following statements about the hazard factor of a population is INCORRECT?
None of the above.
Natural selection:
an increased risk of dying with increasing age.
Aging is:
All of the above
Organisms that live in high-risk worlds would tend to have:
fruit flies
The extension of a normal lifespan has been scientifically achieved in:
the relationships between all living organisms and their environments.
Ecology is best defined as the study of:
It suggests that 10% of what an organism eats is used in cellular respiration or is lost as feces.
Which statement about the 10% rule of energy conversion efficiency is NOT true?
The ocean currents in the northern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise direction, so water off the coast of California has just come from the cold north, while water off the coast of New York has just come from the warm south.
Why do beaches on the west coast of the United States have colder water than beaches on the east coast?
consume primarily carnivores.
“Top” carnivores:
Phosphorus: Phosphate
Which of the following elements is INCORRECTLY matched to its form in the atmosphere?
Rising hot air cools down, forming clouds and rain.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the weather on Earth?
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed is known as __________.
All of the above are correct.
What is the FIRST thing that occurs when two species with overlapping niches are put together?
froth at the mouth so as to increase the likelihood that the rabies-causing virus is passed on to another host.
Rabid animals:
The specific geographical location where an organism lives
Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of a niche?
The presence of a keystone species
Which of the following is most likely to lead to the highest levels of biodiversity?
It allows for only one organism to survive in the niche
Which of the following statements about an organism’s niche is INCORRECT?
as the air goes over the top of the mountain and falls back down toward lower elevations, it holds more moisture, creating a “rain shadow” desert with very little precipitation.
When moist wind from an ocean blows onshore toward a mountain range:
They are detritivores.
What do the following organisms all have in common: vultures, worms, and some arthropods?
play an unusually important role in determining the species composition in a habitat.
Keystone species:
If there is a large biomass of consumers found in a rainforest, which of the following pyramids would best demonstrate the primary productivity?
create deserts.
Rain shadows:
The curvature of the earth leads to a given amount of solar energy being spread out over a smaller area at the equator than at the poles.
Why is it hotter at the equator than the poles?
plants cannot move to escape predators and so must develop other deterrents.
Chemical defenses are more common among plants than animals because:
chemical defense
While hiking in the woods, you and your dog suddenly come upon a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). You dog begins to growl, and the startled skunk sprays your dog with a foul odor, sending him yelping in the other direction. The skunk spraying your dog is an example of a ________________.
South America to Southeast Asia winds ease > warm water flows toward South America, warming the air, causing rain > upwelling of nutrient rich water ceases along the west coast of South America leading to fish deaths > unusually dry weather occurs in Australia and Indonesia
Which of the following correctly orders the events that occur during an El Niño year in the Pacific Ocean?
Animals that have warning coloration similar to another poisonous animal, but themselves are not poisonous, are said to be:
primary succession begins with no life or soil, while secondary succession begins with both.
The chief difference between primary and secondary succession is that:
All of the above.
Earth’s largest ecosystems, biomes, are defined primarily by:
Which of the following biomes is characterized by hot temperatures and strong seasonality, having distinct wet seasons and dry seasons?
keystone species.
In experiments on prairie and rocky seashore communities, scientists have learned that bison and starfish are:
A plankton community in the ocean
In which of the following ecosystems is one most likely to find an “inverted pyramid” of primary productivity?
Competitive exclusion or resource partitioning
When the fundamental niches of two species overlap, competition occurs. Which of the following can be an outcome of such competition?
one species benefits while the other neither benefits nor is harmed.
In a commensal relationship:
All of these are true about an ecosystem.
Which of the following is NOT true about an ecosystem?
all the living organisms and all the abiotic factors that influence living organisms
An ecosystem consists of ____________________ in a given area.
Living organisms in the area
Which of the following is not a part of an organisms’ habitat?
All of the above are correct EXCEPT for the fourth choice.
A rain shadow:
primary producers
Organisms responsible for primary productivity, such as grasses, trees, and agricultural crops, are known as _______________.
The angle at which sunlight hits the earth leads to a given amount of solar energy being spread over a larger area at the poles than at the equator.
Which of the following best explains why it is colder at the Poles than at the Equator?
commensalism; mutualism
Clown fish are protected from predators when they hide among the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. However, some scientists believe that the clown fish may also eat or chase away some predators of the sea anemone. In the first case, the interaction between fish and anemone is __________; in the second case, the interaction is best described as __________.
competition often leads to character displacement, which remains even after direct competition is reduced.
The “ghost of competition past” refers to the fact that:
Lichens arrive, mosses arrive, small herbs and wildflowers arrive, shrubs start growing, small trees start growing, tall trees grow
Which of the following correctly orders the events of primary succession?

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