Bio Gas from Spent Wash Essay

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a matter of greatest pride for me that I have done my project work from United Spirits Limited Rosa, Shahjahanpur (UP), a part of world famous UB Group. This work of mine is the result of my concern regarding the biggest challenge facing all over the world i. e. industrial waste like spent wash I want to share my deepest gratitude to Mr. Devender Saxena Manager Personnel Management, United Spirits Limited Rosa, who allowed me to do my project work, and gave proper information about the industry. I am very much thankful to Mr. D. S.

Yadav Senior Process Manager, United Spirits Limited Rosa, for his patronage and parental affection. He guided me time to time. I am also very much thankful to Mr. Abhishek Chhabra Process Manager, United Spirits Limited Rosa, for his humanistic and supportive attitude, he guided me and monitored my work daily, and give me detailed information about every process and analysis. In the last but not the least I want to share my special thanks to Mr. Dharamveer Singh, Supervisor Biogas Generation plant United Spirits Limited Rosa, and Mr. G. C. Pant, they always guided me to do my work sincerely and I am thankful to all the members of ETP.

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The guidance and encouragement provided to me by Institute Of Environmental Studies, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra Haryana. , given an impetus to my zeal in this direction. Lastly I owe my highest gratitude to my parents for their moral, professional and economic support is the actual fountain head of my entire work. Satish Chandra Verma CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE GROUP ABOUT THE INDUSTRY WHAT IS BIOGAS HISTORY WHY TREATMENT IS NEEDED 2. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY 3. SCOPE OF STUDY 4. BIOGAS GENERATION PLANT DESIGN DATA SPENT WASH CHARACTERSTICS BIO METHANATED EFFLUENT CHARACTERSTICS . PROCESS OF BIOGAS GENERATION 6. STEPS OF BIO GAS GENERATION 7. UASB BIOREACTOR 8. ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS 9. RO PLANT 10. BIO-COPMPOSTING 11. CONCLUSION 12. REFERENCES INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE UB GROUP United Breweries Group or UB Group, based in Bangalore, is a conglomerate of different companies with a major focus on the brewery (beer) and alcoholic beverages industry. The company markets most of its beer under the Kingfisher brand and has also launched Kingfisher Airlines, an airline service in India, with international flights operating recently.

United Breweries is India’s largest producer of beer with a market share of around 52% by volume. The group is headed by Dr. Vijay Mallya who is also a member of the Indian Parliament. United Breweries now has greater than a 59% share of the Indian brewing market with 79 distilleries and bottling units across the world. Recently UB financed a takeover of the spirits business of the rival Shaw-Wallace company giving it a majority share of India’s spirits business. The group owns the Mendocino Brewing Company in the United States. ABOUT UNITED SPIRITS LTD. ROSA

United Spirits ltd. Rosa Distillery situated in Shahjahanpur district of Uttar Pradesh. This is the unit of United Breweries Group. The amount of ENA (extra natural alcohol) produced here is 30 kl/day, with consumption of about 1500 quintal molasses per day. There is also a bottling unit for some famous brands of liquor by United Spirits ltd. like McDowell, Signature, Royal Challenge, Bagpiper etc. Due to this massive process of alcohol production there is also huge generation of waste water generally known as spent wash, which is about 360 cubic meters per day.

For the treatment of this waste there is a spent wash based biogas generation plant with capacity of about 400 cubic meters/day. This plant can produce the maximum of 15000 N cubic meter of bio gas per day in favorable conditions, this amount of Biogas is sufficient for running of boiler used for electricity generation of various processes of the plant. There is a large bio composting field, where bio composting is done by using raw material Press Mud and treated effluent from the bio gas plant, this practice enables the industry for Zero Waste Discharge, a dream for every industry.

WHAT IS BIO GAS In present scenario the cost of conventional energy is increasing day by day and demand for such energy sources is also rising so it has become necessary to utilizing bio-gas as a fuel for domestic and industrial purpose is the most economical reliable and time tested method for conserving energy. Bio gas is also known as swamp gas, sewer gas, fuel gas, marsh gas, wet gas and in India more commonly as gobar gas. Bio-gas consists of 60-65% methane (CH4), 35-40%. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and traces of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ammonia (NH3). HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BIOMETHANATION

The first person to observe the phenomenon of Biomethanation was Alessondro Volta of Italy was back to 1776 he wrote to a friend to that consumables air was being produced continuously in lakes and ponds in the variety of Como in northern Italy. Volta observed that when he distributed the bottom sediment of the lake, bubbles of gas would rise to surface. He also noticed that more bubbles come of when sediment contains more plant material. In 1806 William Henry showed that Volta’s gas was identical with methane gas was identical with methane gas. Humphrey Davy in the early 1800’s observed that methane was present in farmyard manure pieces.

In 1808 Davy conducted the first laboratory experiment to produce methane by anaerobic fermentation was wasted. In the initial periods anaerobic fermentation was carried out mainly as a municipal waste treatment process and energy recovery has not of primary concern. In 1895 biogas from a waste treatment plant in extra. In England was collected and use to light nearly streets…. WHY TREATMENT IS NEEDED The wastewater from distillation process has high organic content, which has to be treated to bring down the levels of COD and BOD to prescribed standards of environmental authorities.

In this study, the organic wastewater from distillery also known as spent wash is treated by closed anaerobic reactors to recover methane rich biogas and utilize the methane as fuel to generate steam and electricity. Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) type of anaerobic reactors is employed in the project activity. The greenhouse gases (GHG) emission reductions due to recovery of methane and displacement of fossil fuel by generation of steam and electricity utilizing the biogas generated are considered as emission reductions of the project activity.

The analyses are conducted based on using the methodology of clean development mechanism (CDM) for the projections of GHG emission reductions for the project baseline. It is found that the project will get methane recovery of 2,632 tones per year and reduce GHG emissions of about 275,646 tones of CO2e over the first 7-year crediting period, and the effluent is sufficient to meet the disposal standards required by the environmental authorities. OBJECTIVE The objective of the work was as under- Study of biogas generation from spent wash of distillery. Study of dewaterability of spent wash of distillery.

To find out the parameters for optimum biogas production. To find out the minimum and maximum dose for sufficient biogas production. A comparative analysis of parameters mandatory in biogas production, as VFA, Bicarbonate alkalinity, COD , BOD , TS, TSS . TDS , VSS , TVA etc To study the working of the biogas plant and RO plant. Study About UASB Bioreactor. SCOPE OF WORK The study was mainly focused on treatment of spent wash of distillery a highly toxic effluent. Initial investigation was conditioning and nutrient mixing like lime and DAP in the buffer tank this helps in maintaining pH of the feed of Digester.

A comparative daily analysis of VFA, Bicarbonate Alkalinity, COD ,and weekly analysis of TS, TSS ,TDS ,VSS and TVA of digester overflow and spent wash. The optimum dose of conditioning was also covered. The basic characteristics of digester feed and overflow like pH, Temperature were analyzed by using standard procedure on per hour basis daily. For utilization of treated effluent the bio-composting process was also analyzed. BIOGAS GENERATION PLANT At the United Spirits ltd Rosa, the spent wash based biogas generation plant or effluent treatment plant is made on more 3834 sq mt. area. This plant contains-

Spent wash holding tanks – two, total 24*15*2 mt area Yeast settling tanks — six, total 9*3. 5*3. 5 mt. area Buffer tank — one, has dia 6 meter at bottom and 12 meter at top, depth 3. 5 meter Digester — one, dia 30 mt height 9. 5 mt Polishing tank — one, 4. 5*4. 5*2. 5 mt Treated effluent tank — one, 15*12*2 mt Gas holding tank — one floating type capacity 150 cubic mt The distillery uses Sugar Cane Molasses as a raw material to make alcohol, using continuous fermentation technology. During the distillation process, a arge quantity of wastewater (called spent wash), approximately 12 – 15 times the quantity of alcohol produced, is produced. The spent wash has a very high BOD/COD. United spirits ltd was awarded the job to install a complete effluent treatment system to treat the spent wash and bring down the BOD to the required levels while simultaneously generating biogas to be used as source of energy. The system was designed to treat 400 M3/day of spent wash with a BOD of 55,000- 60,000 mg/l and a COD of 120,000-150,000 mg/l. The effluent treatment system incorporates a large volume (7065 M3) up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Digester.

The amount of biogas generated from this process is approximately 14,000-16,000 M3/day. The overall ETP system has been functioning satisfactorily since its completion. DESIGN DATA • Calorific Value of Bio gas : 5300 K. Cal/M3 • No. of digesters : 1 • Digester Capacity : 400 KL/day • COD reduction : 65-80% • BOD reduction : 80-85% • Bio-gas generation : 0. 65-0. 70 M3/Kg of COD digested • Methane : 55-65% • Quantity of biogas to be generated : Capacity of the digester x COD of spent wash X COD reduction x Biogas generation per kg of COD digested • Minimum : 400 x (120000/1000) x 0. 65 x 0. 65 ` = 20,280 m3/day Maximum : 400 x (120000/1000) x 0. 8 x 0. 7 = 26,880 m3/day SPENT WASH (DISTILLERY WASTE) The wastewater from molasses-based alcohol distilleries is known as molasses spent wash (MSW). When released in aquatic system, it cuts off light due to its intense brown color and affects photosynthesis. The high organic load of the effluent causes eutrophication. When disposed in soil, MSW acidifies soil and affects agricultural crops. About 2. 7 billion liter of alcohol is produced by about 285 distilleries in India (1). Molasses spent wash in such effluents is nearly 15 times in volume of the total alcohol production.

This huge quantity, about 40 billion liters of MSW effluent, if disposed untreated in water courses can cause great stress on the aquatic life. Alcohol serves as a basic chemical for a large number of chemical industries and therefore, demand for alcohol will see a great increase in future and so also the distilleries producing alcohol. This will eventually lead to an increased pollution by intensely brown colored MSW. The Brown color of MSW is due to the presence of melanoidin pigments which are the products of the “Maillard reaction” between sugars and amino compounds produced on heating (2).

Anaerobic digestion of MSW-containing effluents is one of the treatments followed by distilleries and the resulting dark brown sludge is used as a fertilizer. The effluent after such treatment has a reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a lower biological oxygen demand (BOD). However, this treatment does not remove the dark brown color of the effluent, which is a major pollution problem. The effluent therefore is released after diluting with fresh water which is a very dear commodity to industries.

In order to remove color from such effluents, several species of terrestrial fungi have been tried (3 and 4). These fungi have been reported to remove about 70 to 80 % of the color (5). We have earlier reported decolorization of MSW by using free mycelia of Flavodon flavus, a basidiomycetes isolated by us from decomposing leaves of a seagrass from a coral lagoon in India. [pic] SPENT WASH CHARACTERSTICS OF DISTELLERY AT UNITED SPIRITS LTD. Parameter Unit Value pH – 4-4. SS mg l-1 20,000-30,000 TDS mg l-1 65,000-90,000 TS mg l-1 90,000- 140,000 COD mg l-1 120,000-150,000 Chloride mg l-1 59981 Sulphate mg l-1 25920 BOD mg l-1 30,000-50,000 Potassium mg l-1 4360 TSS mg l-1 10,000-20,000 Colour dark brown Temperature oC 85-95 BIO METHANATED EFFLUENT • Colour – Blackish brown • pH – 7. 4-7. 6 • Temperature – 35-38 oC • COD – 35,000-39,000 mg/1. • BOD – 6,000 mg/1 • TDS – 40,000 mg/1 • TSS – 5,000 mg/1 Final treated as permeate water after R. O. Plant • Colour – Colourless • pH – 7-7. 2 • Temperature – 35 0C • COD –


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