Biodiversity test flashcard

conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into usable compounds by bacteria, nitrogen fixation, conversion of nitrogen from decaying organisms into ammonia
Which of the following is part of the nitrogen cycle?
Most desert biomes are in close proximity to what other biome?
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physical environmental factors
The concept of an ecosystem differs from that of a community in that, unlike the community, the ecosystem includes the
What term denotes the range of all factors that influence whether a species can obtain resources essential for survival and reproduction?
In general, a predator is ___ than its ___
environmental cues, hormonal interactions, neural networks, genetic predisposition
Behavior is the result of
In 1882, the tropical volcanic island Krakatoa exploded and was reduced to an abiotic island covered by a thick layer of ash. By 1933, populations of all of the following organisms were present. Which population was probably established after the others?
Of the energy that enters one trophic level, approximately what percent becomes available for the next trophic level?
If a dog stops responding to the loud noise produced by its master when he bangs his pipe against an ashtray, the dog is exhibiting a behavior pattern known as
deep ocean waters
Organisms with light-producing body parts would most likely be found in
kin selection
Parental support of offspring is an example of
living organisms
The biomass of a community is the weight of the
deep oceans
All but which f the following are affected by climate?
The relationship between an insect and the plants it pollinates is best described as
the amount of energy still available is too small
Food chains rarely have more than three levels of consumers because
self-sacrificing behavior
Altruistic behavior is
Niche over lap initially leads to
number of different species in the habitat
The term species richness refers specifically to the
Learned behavior is recognizable by the ___ the animal makes in its responses
The amount of ultraviolet radiation hitting the earth’s surface is greatly reduced by which the gas in the atmosphere?
bacteria and fungi
if the ___ in an ecosystem die, wastes will accumulate and most nutrients will stop cycling.
a single dominant species; is exemplified by the seastar; and is in control of the prey species
A keystone species is
In the food chain. grass ==> rabbit==> eagle, the relationship between the grass and eagle is
low rainfall amounts
The only one of the following characteristics that all deserts have in common is
shallow ocean waters
The greatest diversity of life in the ocean is found in
tropical forests
Which of the following would be the least suitable for conversion to agriculture?
learned behavior that occurs during a critical time period
Imprinting is a
higher solar radiation, patterns of plant growth there, high annual rainfall, warm temperatures
Species richness is greater in the tropics than in the arctic because of
the succession that occurs after a large fire is primary succession
Which of the following statements is false?
they inflict serious injury and kill their hosts
Which of the following is not a characteristic of parasites?
Which of the following does NOT cycle through an ecosystem?
enzymatic breakdown of food
Of the following, which is NOT a behavior?
Newly hatched goslings follow any large moving objects to which they are exposed shortly after hatching. This is an example of
A goat eating by pulling a plant out of the ground is an example of
as producers, they form the base of food chains
All living organisms are dependent upon plants because
stereotyped, triggered by limited sets of clues, induced each and every time the stimulus is presented, unlearned
Instinctive behavior is
some bacteria, some protists, and some fungi; all viruses; a few plants; some flatworms and roundworms
Which of the following are parasites?
moss and lichens on bare rock
Which of the following represents an early stage in primary succession?
The ultimate source of all energy in a terrestrial ecosystem is
enzymatic breakdown of food
Which of the following in NOT a behavior?
offers evidence for evolution
The distribution of different organisms over the surface of the earth
the wing of a bird and the wing of a butterfly
Which of the following structures are analogous but not homologous?
The forelimbs of early mammals are similar in all features except
mechanical isolation
The inability of bees to pollinate the flowers of certain sage plants is an example of
sustainable supply of resources it provides
The carrying capacity of an enviorment is determined by the
inherited genes that made it resistant to the pesticide
An insect that exhibits resistance to a pesticide
studied to become a physician, a clergyman and pursued his interests in natural history
Charles Darwin
indicate a fairly constant rate of death at all ages
Type II survivorship curves
the extremes of the population have lesser change to survive
Stabalizing selection occurs when
Natural selection operates to produce changes in
Four of the five choices below support the concept of evolution. Select the exception.
within the home range
Sympatric speciation occurs
some individuals have a better chance to produce more offspring
The operation of natural selection depends upon the fact that
sexual selection
Sexual dimorphism has arisen as a result of
Alfred Wallace
The person credited with being the codiscoverer of evolution by natural selection was
The distribution of highly competitive animals is likely to be
The word “evolution” as used in biology literally means
behavioral isolation
Members of two different bird species mate and produce viable, fertile offspring. Members of neither parent species recognized the courtship of the song the hybrids. The hybrids are subject to ___
are strong and sturdy
Mules are unusual hybrids because they
Four of the five choices listed below are types of selection exhibited by nature. Select the exception
gene flow
Which of the following does NOT promote speciation?
Complete reproductive isolation is evidence that what has occurred?
can mate and produce fertile offspring
Two individuals are members of the same species if they
The feature of Darwin’s finches shows variation is
the advantage of the heterozygous form over the homozygous form
The persistence of the sickle-cell anemia in the African population is the result of
The type of reproductive isolation exhibited by 13-year and 17-year cicadas is
occurs following a bottleneck, requires small populations, leads to a loss of diversity in a population, occurs in populations with the founder effect
Genetic drift
Which theory was helpful to Darwin in the formulation of his theory of evolution?
the homozygous recessive genotype at a give locus
In the Hardy-Weinberg equation the term q² refers to the frequency of
decreasing birth rate
The most reasonable method of limiting human population growth is
is in the form of a pyramid with a broad base
The age structure diagram for rapidly growing populations
parasitism, competition, predation, disease
As population density increases, the chance of ___ also increases
birth rate, reproductive age, expected life span, death rate
Life tables provide data concerning
as the carrying capacity is reached
A J-shaped population growth curve becomes an S-shaped one
Introduction of previously nonexistent genes into a population may be accomplished by
inheritance of acquired characteristics
Lamarck’s contribution to the theory of evolution is the concept of
zero population growth
When the birth rate plus immigration equals the death rate plus emigration the result is
What distribution pattern is the most in the natural world?
plate tectonics
In the nineteenth century, prevailing beliefs came into conflict with findings from all BUT
The average number of individuals of the same species per unit area or volume at a given time is the population’s
opponents usually settle the dispute without bloodshed
During aggressive encounters between members of the same species
If an individual for whatever reason cannot pass on its genes to offspring, the best alternative is to show altruism to
insight learning
Which of the following behavior patterns is limited to the most highly evolved animals?
Konrad Lorenz is noted for his studies on
hormonal interactions, environmental cues, neural networks, genetic predisposition
Behavior is the result of
a male fruit fly waves his wings at a female fruit fly during courtship
Which of the following is(are) fixed action pattern(s)?
populations, communities, ecosystems, the biosphere
Ecological interactions involve
age distribution
Individuals in the populations grouped according to levels of maturity defines the population’s
The distribution of the human population in the US is
birth rates, death rates, the number of individuals entering the population, the number of individuals leaving the population
The change in population size is measured in terms f
The graph of a population that is growing exponentially in the absence of limiting factors is
most; slowest; most
The ___ developed countries have the ___ growth rates and use the ___ resources
inheritance of acquired characteristics
Which of the following has no part in today’s concept of natural selection?
the Galapagos Islands
The place Darwin visited on his trip around the world that had the greatest impact on his thinking was
Which of the following is a source of new alleles within a population?
differential reproduction
Of the following, which does NOT characterize a population in genetic equilibrium?
The Hardy-Weinberg formula is valuable for the calculation of changes in
the organisms on one extreme of the population have a better chance to survive than those on the other extreme
Directional selection occurs when
natural selection of forms that expressed genes for resistance
When DDT was first introduced, insects were very susceptible to it. The development of resistance to DDT by insects was the result of
the extremes of the population have a lesser chance to survive
Stabilizing selection occurs when
genetic drift
The evolutionary force that operates primarily through chance is
the founder principle
The introduction of a small population onto an island that results in a limited gene pool is an example of
The plural for genus is
Members of what domain are evolutionarily closest to eukaryotes?
periods of recovery and adaptive radiations
Mass extinctions are usually followed by
comparative biochemistry
Information mostly from what discipline favored the formation of a three-domain system of classification?
Fossils indicate that the first cells were similar to existing
kingdom>>phylum>>class>>order>>family>> genus>>species
Which of the following is the correct order of taxa from most inclusive to least inclusive?
Which group includes all of the other groups?
Which of the following are NOT eukaryotes?
Stanley Miller
Who demonstrated the possibility of producing organic compounds from gases and water if the mixture is exposed to energy?
high concentrations of oxygen
Many organic compounds essential for life, such as amino acids and nucleotides, do NOT assemble spontaneously in the presence of
The first group with flowers
algae>>bryophytes>>ferns>>conifers>>flowering plants
Which is the correct sequence in the evolution of plants?
a year or more
In conifers, the time between pollination and fertilization is
xylem, phloem, stomata, roots
Which of the following is(are) specialization(s) that evolved in land plants that was(were) unnecessary in their aquatic ancestors?
mosses have independent sporophytes
Which of the following statements is false?
Four of the five organisms listed below do not have vascular tissue. Select the exception
The evolution of ___ was crucial in the evolution of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments
The first seed-bearing plants are relatives of
a sporophyte
A pine tree is
Four of the five plant groups listed below have dominant sporophytes. Select the exception
fungi and photosynthetic organisms
Lichens are vegetative bodies composed of symbiotic associations of
Fungi are
digest food extracellularly
All fungi
Most true fungi send out cellular filaments called
reproductive structures
The major groups of fungi are assigned names on the basis of
The walls of fungi are reinforced with
sexual reproduction
Imperfect fungi are those that lack (or do not show)
Mushrooms are found in which of the following?
The sac fungi are members of the
in polluted areas
Lichens are unable to grow
Four of the five choices below are terms used in describing fungi. Select the exception.
there are more vertebrates species than invertebrates
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
multicellular, heterotrophic and diploid
All animals are
flatworms and roundworms
Which of the following lack a “true” coelom?
is a one-way tube with a mouth and an anus
A digestive tract is complete if it
sea star
Which of the following organisms exhibits cephalization?
A mantle is found only among the
Animals that are hermaphroditic usually
Which phylum is strictly marine, with no freshwater or terrestrial forms?
Exoskeletons are most characteristic of
Which of the following phyla is characterized by radially symmetrical members?
filter feeders
Poriferans are
sea anemone
All EXCEPT which of these is an echinoderm?

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