BIOL 1107 Exam 3

extract usable energy from glucose
*The function of cellular respiration is to __________.
fatty acids, amino acids, glycerol
*Glucose is the primary fuel for cellular respiration. Which of the following molecules can also be used by cellular respiration to generate ATP?
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enables the cell to recycle the reduced NADH to oxidized NAD+
*Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step __________.
Transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation
*A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which of the following processes?
glucose; oxygen
*In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration, __________ is oxidized and __________ is reduced.
*In what molecule(s) is the majority of the chemical energy from pyruvate transferred during the citric acid cycle?
The electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
*Which of the following metabolic pathways produce(s) the most ATP, per glucose molecule metabolized, during cellular respiration?
H+ flows across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the enzyme ATP synthase.
*Most of the ATP in cellular respiration is produced by the process of chemiosmosis. How does this process produce ATP?
Oxidative phosphorylation
*All of the processes involved in cellular respiration produce ATP. Which of the following processes produces the most ATP?
Feedback inhibition of glycolysis
*Cells must regulate their metabolic pathways so that they do not waste resources. What is the most common mechanism that regulates cellular respiration in most cells?
The citric acid cycle
Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following processes?
Fermentation oxidizes NADH to NAD+, which facilitates the production of ATP in glycolysis.
Fermentation by itself produces no ATP but keeps glycolysis going, which produces a small amount of ATP. How does fermentation do this?
Pyruvate is oxidized and decarboxylated, and the removed electrons are used to reduce an NAD+ to an NADH.
In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps occurs?
After completion of the citric acid cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of __________.
Citric acid cycle: cytosol
Which of the following pairs of pathways and their location in the cell is incorrectly matched?
At the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used for which of the following purposes?
Two ATP, six NADH, and two FADH2
What is the total production of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 in the citric acid cycle from one molecule of glucose?
Oxidation of glucose to pyruvate; oxidation of pyruvate; oxidation of acetyl-coA; oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following is a correct description of the events of cellular respiration and the sequence of events in cellular respiration?
Reducing NAD+ to NADH in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle AND producing a proton gradient for ATP synthesis in the mitochondria.
Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the following processes?
The combination of the citric acid cycle and electron transport
Which part of the catabolism of glucose by cellular respiration requires molecular oxygen (O2) and produces CO2?
In which process is glucose oxidized to form two molecules of pyruvate?
loses an electron
A molecule becomes more oxidized when it __________.
regenerate NAD+
Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate to do which of the following?
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
Reducing NAD+ to NADH in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle AND producing a proton gradient for ATP synthesis in the mitochondria.
Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the following processes?
It is reduced to form water.
What is the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain?
Lactic acid fermentation produces lactate, and alcohol fermentation produces ethanol.
Which statement correctly describes the difference between alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation?
The pumping of H+ across the cristae of the mitochondrion
The energy from the electrons in NADH and FADH2 fuel what process in the electron transport chain?
NADH and ATP are produced
During the energy payoff phase of glycolysis, __________.
glucose is phosphorylated before it is split into two three-carbon molecules
During the energy investment phase of glycolysis, __________.
The flow of H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme
The ATP synthase in a human cell obtains energy for synthesizing ATP directly from which of the following processes?
The first product of carbon fixation in C4 plants is a four-carbon compound instead of a three-carbon compound.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the difference in carbon fixation between C3 and C4 plants?
use chemiosmosis to produce ATP
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts __________.
CO2 is reduced.
Of the following, which occurs during the Calvin cycle?
G3P production
Which of the following processes occurs during the second phase, the reduction phase, of the Calvin cycle?
The Calvin cycle incorporates each CO2 molecule, one at a time, by attaching it to a five-carbon sugar named ribulose bisphosphate.
During the Calvin cycle, what happens during the carbon fixation phase?
All of the listed processes can use G3P.
G3P is used in which of the following processes?
NADPH; ATP; oxygen
The light reactions of photosynthesis generate high-energy electrons, which end up in __________. The light reactions also produce __________ and __________.
Through the stomata
How does carbon dioxide enter the leaf?
Water is oxidized and carbon dioxide is reduced.
Metabolic pathways are typically redox processes. In photosynthesis, what molecule is oxidized and what molecule is reduced?
capture light energy
The most important role of pigments in photosynthesis is to __________.
The Calvin cycle requires products only produced when the photosystems are illuminated.
The reactions of the Calvin cycle are not directly dependent on light, but they usually do not occur at night. Why?
ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions provide the energy for the production of sugars in the Calvin cycle.
The Calvin cycle could not occur without the light reactions. Which of the following statements describes why this is the case?
carbon dioxide
In photosynthesis, plants use carbon from __________ to make sugar and other organic molecules.
Where do the electrons entering photosystem II come from?
Oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration
In the light reactions of photosynthesis, ATP is produced by photophosphorylation. Which of the listed processes is most similar to photophosphorylation?
primary electron acceptor, chlorophyll molecules, reaction-center complex, light harvesting complexes
A photosystem consists of which of the following structures?
their electrons become excited
When chloroplast pigments absorb light, __________.
Chlorophyll absorbs all of the visible spectrum of light except green, which it reflects.
What property of the pigment chlorophyll makes it appear green?
Thylakoid membranes
Chlorophyll molecules are in which part of the chloroplast?
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with __________.
Carbon dioxide and oxygen enter and exit a leaf by diffusion. Which structure(s) on a leaf allow(s) this process to happen?
Thylakoid membrane
The light reactions of photosynthesis use chemiosmosis to produce ATP that will be used in the Calvin cycle. The electrochemical gradient that drives this chemiosmosis is formed across which structure(s)?
movement of H+ through a membrane
The energy used to produce ATP in the light reactions of photosynthesis comes from __________.
The source of the oxygen produced by photosynthesis has been identified through experiments using radioactive tracers. The oxygen comes from __________.
They are the ultimate sources of organic compounds for all nonautotrophic organisms.
Why are most autotrophs referred to as the producers of the biosphere?
Where does the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis occur?
Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.
Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
The light reactions by linear electron flow
During which process is molecular oxygen produced in photosynthesis?
While it did have access to light, the plant stored energy in the form of sugars or starch, and it was able to derive energy from the stored molecules during your vacation.
You have a large, healthy philodendron that you carelessly leave in total darkness while you are away on vacation. You are surprised to find that it is still alive when you return. What has the plant been using for an energy source while in the dark?
The light reactions of photosynthesis occur in the __________.
Separation of the sister chromatids
Which of the following events does not occur during interphase of the cell cycle?
do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition
Observations of cancer cells in culture support the hypothesis that cancer cells __________.
the beginning of the formation of a spindle apparatus
One event occurring during prophase is __________.
Which of the following phases of mitosis is essentially the opposite of prometaphase in terms of the nuclear envelope?
division of the cytoplasm
Cytokinesis refers to __________.
The mitotic spindle breaks down.
Which of the following events does not occur during prophase of mitosis?
the origins of replication move apart
During binary fission in a bacterium __________.
Centrosome, The aster, Nonkinetochore microtubules, Kinetochore microtubules
Which of the following structures is/are part of the mitotic spindle?
dispersed in the nucleus as long strands of chromatin
During interphase, the genetic material of a typical eukaryotic cell is __________.
The cell contains more than one nucleus.
Which of the following statements describes a cell that undergoes mitosis but not cytokinesis?
it had formed a cell plate
You would know a dividing cell was a plant cell rather than an animal cell if you saw that __________.
regulate the cell cycle through a variety of stop and go signals
Checkpoints in the cell cycle control system __________.
The nuclear envelope fragments in most eukaryotes but remains intact in diatoms and dinoflagellates.
How does the process of mitosis differ between most eukaryotes and other eukaryotes such as diatoms and dinoflagellates?
The chromosomes align along the metaphase plate of the cell.
Which of the following events occurs during metaphase of mitosis?
identical copies of each other if they are part of the same chromosome
Chromatids are __________.
Cells of benign tumors do not metastasize; those of malignant tumors do.
What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor?
a centromere
The region of a chromosome holding the two double strands of replicated DNA together is called __________.
The nuclear envelope fragments.
Which of the following events occurs during prometaphase of mitosis?
The DNA was replicated during the S phase of interphase, which occurs between the two G phases.
A cell biologist examined the DNA content of a cell from a fruit fly larva during the G1 phase and determined that it had 150 units of DNA. After measuring the DNA content of the same type of cell after the G2 phase, it was discovered that the cell had 300 units of DNA. How is this possible?
The complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome is properly called __________.
Binary fission involves the replication and division of a single chromosome, whereas mitosis involves the division of multiple, replicated chromosomes.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the difference(s) between mitosis and binary fission?
The centromeres divide
The centrioles are at opposite poles
A spindle made of microtubules is present
Identical chromatids move to opposite poles
Which event or events occur during anaphase?
Two distinct daughter nuclei form in the cell.
Which of the following events occurs during telophase of mitosis?
are genetically identical to the parent cell (assuming no mutation has occurred)
The function of the mitotic cell cycle is to produce daughter cells that __________.
How many chromatids does a human somatic cell contain after interphase and just prior to mitosis?
the S phase of interphase in both somatic and reproductive cells
DNA replication occurs in __________.
A cell contains 40 chromatids at the beginning of mitosis. How many chromosomes will it contain at the completion of cytokinesis?
In animal cell mitosis, the cleavage furrow forms during which stage of the cell cycle?
The spread of cancer cells to other locations in the body is known as __________.
The sister chromatids are pulled apart toward opposite sides of the cell.
Which of the following events occurs during anaphase of mitosis?

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