A declining population of birds that requires a high population density in order to form breeding colonies
Which of the following population would be most vulnerable to extinction:
a) a population with 1:1 sex ratio
b) a declining population of birds that require a high population density in order to form breeding colonies
c) a generalist population
d) a medium-sized specialist population
In 1858, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, independently of one another, proposed the concept of _______, the mechanism for which evolution was possible.
mass extinction events
Which of the following would explain the extinction of 95% of species in existence over a short period of time?
organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
Which of the following represents the proper hierarchy for ecological organization (from smallest to broadest)?
R-selected organisms tend to have _______ growth.
increase rapidly at first then grow more slowly as they stabilize carrying capacity
Dissolved Oxygen levels
Consider a population of fish in the ocean. Which of the following would be a limiting factor for such a population?
Two species could divide a niche through “resource partitioning.”
Which of the following statements best describes competition for a niche?
a) Members of different species never compete for resources.
b) Competition for resources always involves aggression.
c) Two species could divide a niche through “resource partitioning.”
d) Competition for a niche always results in the disappearance of one of the competing species.
If two members of the same bird species are competing for the same tree to build a nest in, this is considered_____.
a surface exposed by a retreating glacier
Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?
a) abandoned farmland
b) none of these is a starting point for primary succession
c) a neglected yard
d) a surface exposed by a retreating glacier
e) an abandoned city
Lichens and mosses
The first colonizing organisms during primary succession tend to be:
plants have wind-dispersed seeds
Which one of the following is a general characteristic of plants that are early colonizers during primary succession?
a) plants can outcompete other plants that invade the area
b) plants have wind-dispersed seeds
c) plants are able to fix their own nitrogen
d) plants are shade-tolerant
A keystone species that is a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant populations and keeps balance
Which statement is an accurate description of a keystone species?
a) Keystone species are the largest-bodied species in a community.
b) Keystone species are always represented in the community in the highest numbers.
c) If the keystone species disappears, the whole ecosystem collapses and nothing survives.
d) A keystone species that is a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant populations and keeps balance.
A pyramid of energy
The most accurate way to represent trophic levels in a food chain graphically would be as ____________
After a disturbance, the community goes through a somewhat predictable set of changes until reaching a final state called a climax community.
Which statement best describes the process of ecological succession?
a) A population will always be succeeded by another population.
b) After a disturbance, the community goes through a somewhat predictable set of changes until reaching a final state called a climax community.
c) Primary succession begins with soil that was once inhabited by plants.
d) Planting pines in an abandoned farm field mimics what would normally happen in succession.
Motivated by self-interest, resources are overused by some individuals, which leaves less for others
Which of the following best describes the ideas behind the parable of “The Tragedy of the Commons?”
a) Human population growth will be determined and limited by the average ecological footprint of a population.
b) Resources are essentially limitless.
c) Governments should regulate the use of resources held in common by the public.
d) Motivated by self-interest, resources are overused by some individuals, which leaves less for others.
Both biotic and abiotic factors
Which of the following best describes the elements of our environment?
Which of the following is an example of a renewable resource?
b) wave energy
c) crude oil
d) minerals and natural gas
A(n) ______ expresses environmental impact in terms of the cumulative area of land and water required to provide the resources a person consumes
A scientist manipulates the ___ in an experiment
A scientist measures the ___ in an experiment
A condition in an experiment that can change is called
world is flat, sun revolves around earth
Examples of paradigm
1) nutrients enter a waterway in elevated conditions
2) nutrients promote phytoplanton growth, and increase phytoplanton density in water
3) more phytoplankton die and settle to the bottom, where they are metabolized by bacteria
4) hypoxic conditions arise in the deep water above the sediments
5) aquatic life and near the sediment flees or suffocates
energy is required to build a complicated organism out of simple chemicals
The second law of thermodynamics predicts that _____
Chemical energy is a form of
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
Farming practices that minimize disturbance to soil are collectively
The practice of planting different crops in strategic arrangement in the same field
Altering the crops grown on a field from one season to the next
Rows of trees or other tall plants grown at the edges of farm fields in order to slow down wind
Tilling sideways across a hillside to slow water running down the slope
Creates level platforms for crops on steep hillsides in order to hold rainwater and reduce soil
consists of plant residue atop the soil surface. May be leaves and twigs or crop residue
organic matter, humus, and inorganic material. Facilitates plant rooting, has high nutrient content and holds water
loses mineral and organic matter to the layer beneath it
Eluviated (leaching layer)
accumulates minerals and organic matter leached from upper soil layers
the base geologic material in a particular location
Rock (parent material)
industrial monoculture agriculture
What practice contributes most to soil erosion?
What type of legislation has encouraged farmers to adopt soil conservation practices in order to receive gov. subsidies?
can be caused by overgazing
Desertification is a form of land degradation that of
The CRP pays farmers NOT to grow crops on land that is not very well suited for crop production.
How does the Conservation Reserve Program try to protect soil for future agriculture?
_____ occurs when salts build up in the surface of soil as a result of high evaporation rates in area of low precipitation
North Atlantic Deep Water
Ocean currents can affect climate. One major downwelling specifically responsible for keeping Europe warmer than it would otherwise be is known as ________________.
uppermost layer of the ocean called the photic zone
Most of the productivity of the ocean occurs in or on the _____________.
a loss of dissolved oxygen in the water
What is the direct cause of death for the aquatic animals during eutrophication?
Which of the following fishing methods involves dragging weighted nets across the ocean floor in an attempt to catch bottommost fish?
Which of the following can trap pollutants at ground level and cause dangerous smog?
Earth’s ozone layer that limits damaging solar radiation striking the planet is found in the _______
Which gas makes up 78% of the molecules in the atmosphere?
Which of the following is an air pollutant?
b) tropospheric ozone
c) stratospheric ozone
About 30% of solar energy is reflected back into space
Weather is best described as ______.