Biology 1001 Exam 3

During the “gap” phases of the cell cycle, most of the activity is directed toward
DNA replication
The stage just preceding nuclear and cytoplasmic division is the
M stage
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The spindle apparatus is made of
-differs in plant and animal cells.
-usually accompanies nuclear division.
-involves microtubules and/or actin filaments.
-in plant cells utilizes an established zone marking the plane of division.
Cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis)
When molecules are broken apart in respiration the energy released in respiration is _______________.
channeled into molecules of ATP
a mechanism of tapping the energy found in the bonds between atoms forming organic compounds.
Cellular Respiration
Which of the following liberates the most energy in the form of ATP?

A. aerobic respiration

B. anaerobic respiration

C. alcoholic fermentation

D. lactate fermentation

E. All liberate the same amount, but through different means.

Aerobic Respiration
How many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose degraded during glycolysis?
The Krebs cycle takes place in the
The greatest number of ATP molecules is produced in _____________.
electron transport phosphorylation
During electron transport phosphorylation, which ions accumulate in the outer compartment of the mitochondria?
When a cell undergoes mitosis,

A. the daughter cells have identical genes.

B. the daughter cell has genes identical to those of the mother cell that produced it.

C. the amount of cytoplasm in the mother cell and in each of the daughter cells is equal.

D. there is an exact duplication and division of all of the organelles between daughter cells.

E. both a and b, but not c or d

Which of the following is NOT associated with meiosis?

A. reduction of number of chromosomes

B. somatic cells

C. sexual reproduction

D. sperm and egg

E. germ cells

somatic cells
In mitosis, if a parent cell has sixteen chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes?
Chromatids that are attached at the centromere are called what kind of chromatids?
Which statement is true of the behavior of chromosomes in mitosis?

A. Each new cell receives half of the number of chromosomes in the original cell.

B. Each new cell receives one pair of all the original chromosomes.

C. If the original number of chromosomes was forty-six, each new cell will have twenty-three.

D. The sister chromosomes are not identical due to breakages in the DNA.

E. All chromosomes are duplicated except the sex chromosomes.

Each new cell receives one pair of all the original chromosomes
Chromosomes are duplicated during which phase?
The chromatids detach from one another and become visibly separate chromosomes during _____________.
In eukaryotic cells, which can occur during the stages of mitosis?

A. the duplication of chromatids

B. the replication of DNA

C. synapsis and crossing over

D. fragmentation and disappearance of nuclear envelope and nucleolus

E. all of the above

fragmentation and disappearance of nuclear envelope and nucleolus
Proper Sequence for Meiosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
results in new combinations of genetic traits.
Sexual Reproduction
Different, or alternative, forms of the same gene are called
-may exchange parts during meiosis.

-have alleles for the same characteristics even though the gene expression may not be the same.

-are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the father and one from the mother.

-pair up during meiosis.

Homologous Chromosomes
Synapsis and crossing over occur during __________.
Prophase I
Paired homologous chromosomes are found at the spindle equator during
Metaphase I
______________ increases variability in gametes.
Crossing Over
If a diploid organism has a genome consisting of four chromosomes, it can produce ____________ different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes (disregarding crossing over).
During ____________sister chromatids of each chromosome are separated from each other.
Meiosis II
Meiosis typically results in the production of _________________.
Four Haploid Cells
-have corresponding alleles on homologous chromosomes.

-are usually the result of the fusion of two haploid gametes.

-have two sets of chromosomes.

-have pairs of homologous chromosomes.

Diploid Organisms
Which of the following genotypes is homozygous?



C. aaBB

D. aaBb

E. AaBb

The most accurate description of an organism with genotype AaBb is ____________.
An individual with a genotype of Aa Bb CC is able to produce how many different kinds of gametes?
-located on chromosomes.

-inherited in the same way as chromosomes.

-arranged in linear sequence on chromosomes.

-assorted independently during meiosis.

If alleles L, M, and N are on the maternal chromosome and l, m, and n are on the paternal chromosome, the only way that a gamete from a heterozygote will produce a gamete with alleles l, m, and N is through
Crossing Over
cytoplasm apportioned between the two daughter cells
final phase of mitosis; daughter nuclei reform
two sister chromatids are joined here
chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle begins to form
chromosomes line up at spindle equator
sister chromatids separate, move to opposite spindle poles now
about 25 nm in diameter; form mitotic spindle
half of a chromosome in prophase
in pairs in some eukaryotic cells; move to poles during spindle formation
Period when DNA is duplicated
Period when interphase ends in the parent cell
Event that forms two daughter cytoplasmic masses
Period of cell growth before DNA duplication
Period after DNA is duplicated
Period of nuclear division
Period when interphase begins in a daughter cell
Period commonly followed by cytokinesis
The period in which metaphase occurs
The period prior to mitosis
During this stage, homologous pairs of chromosomes are lined up on the equatorial plate.
Chromosomes replicate during this phase.
Genes replicate during this phase
DNA replicates during this phase.
Condensation and shortening of chromosomes occurs during this phase.
Spindle fibers first appear during this stage.
During this phase, the centromeres break apart as the separated sister chromatids begin to move to opposite poles.
The microtubular spindle develops during this phase.
Sister chromatids joined at their centromeres are attached to spindle fibers during this phase.
Cytokinesis occurs as this phase of mitosis proceeds.
New daughter nuclear membranes form during this phase.
The formation of tetrads by synapsis occurs during this stage.
Prophase I
Recombination via crossing over occurs during this stage.
Prophase I
By the end of this phase, the number of homologous chromosomes is reduced in half.
Anaphase I
During this stage, the sister chromatids begin to separate.
Metaphase II
Following this phase, each individual cell is haploid.
Telophase I
Chiasmata are present during this stage.
Prophase I
During this phase, the centromeres separate.
Metaphase II
New genetic combinations, upon which natural selection can act, is present after this stage.
Prophase I
What is the difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?
Mitosis produces _________; Meiosis produces ________ offspring
clones, variable
Interphase consists of ___, ___, ___
G1, S, G2
For PROKARYOTES, where does the electron transport chain occur?
Cellular membrane
The process by which energy is first used to generate a gradient of H+, and then captured in the bonds of ATP as H+ flows down its gradient is called _________________.
Reproduction that only requires mitosis
Reproduction that always involves meiosis
How do the two members of a pair of homologous chromosomes differ from each other?
The precise sequence of the DNA within each of the chromosomes
Stage of Mitosis where chromosomes are photographed in the preparation of a karotype
Sperm cells have ____ as many chromosomes as the liver
The term for a human cell that contains 22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes
Female Somatic Cell
All sexual life cycles have…..(3 things)
Meiosis, Fertilization, Gametes
In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in _________.
Chromatid separation occurs during __________ and ___________.
Anaphase, Meiosis II
Cells prepare for division and cells are replicating
S phase
-Chromosomes condense and the nucleolus begins to disappear.
-A spindle forms and captures the chromosomes
Separation of homologous chromosomes occurs during ___________.
Anaphase I
In _____________ homologous chromosomes separate from each other
Meiosis I
In ______________ sister chromatids separate
Meiosis II
Interphase consists of _____, _______, _______.
G1, S, G2
At the end of Oogenesis, ____ ______ and ___ _____ _____ are produced.
1 ovum, 3 polar bodies
Spermotogenesis closely resembles __________.
Meiosis I and II
In mitosis, __________ cells are produced and each cell is __________ in comparison to the parent.
2 Diploid, identical
Recombination occurs in _______ of _________.
Prophase of Meiosis I
Consists of Phosphate Group, Sugar, and Base
Adenine double bonds to __________.
Guanine Triple Bonds to ____________.
Changes in DNa are a result of ________ and __________.
Mutations, Crossing Over
Human has ___ chromosomes with ___ being Autosomes
23, 22
________ and ________ are the electron donors made in the Krebs cycle
Overall, cellular respiration makes ______ ATP
Glycolysis occurs in _________.
Purpose of Fermentation:
Oxidize NADH to NAD+
Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the center of the cell; independent assortment soon follows.
metaphase I
Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?
A) Homologous chromosomes are separated.
B) The chromosome number is conserved.
C) Sister chromatids are separated.
D) Four daughter cells are formed.
E) The sperm cells elongate to form a head and a tail end.
Homologous Chromosomes are separated
Which of the following is true of the process of meiosis?
A) Two diploid cells result.
B) Four diploid cells result.
C) Four haploid cells result.
D) Four autosomes result.
E) Four chiasmata result.
Four haploid cells result
Crossing over occurs during which phase of meiosis?
prophase I
You have in your possession a microscope slide with meiotic cells on it and a light microscope. What would you look for if you wanted to identify metaphase I cells on the slide?
A) a visible nuclear envelope
B) separated sister chromatids at each pole of the cell
C) tetrads lined up at the center of the cell
D) a synaptonemal complex
E) a cleavage furrow
Tetrands lined up at the center of the cell
1.formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus
2. alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate
3. separation of sister chromatids
4. separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere
5. synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pairs

49) From the descriptions above, which of the following is the order that most logically illustrates a sequence of meiosis?
A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
B) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3
C) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
D) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3
E) 5, 2, 4, 3, 1

1.formation of four new nuclei, each with half the chromosomes present in the parental nucleus
2. alignment of tetrads at the metaphase plate
3. separation of sister chromatids
4. separation of the homologues; no uncoupling of the centromere
5. synapsis; chromosomes moving to the middle of the cell in pairs

Which of the steps take place in both mitosis and meiosis?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 5
D) 2 and 3 only
E) 2, 3, and 5

When comparing prophase I of meiosis with prophase of mitosis, which of the following occurs only in meiosis?
A) The chromosomes condense.
B) Tetrads form.
C) The nuclear envelope disassembles.
D) A spindle forms.
E) Each chromosome is composed of two chromatids.
Tetrands Form
Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?
A) chromosome replication
B) synapsis
C) production of daughter cells
D) alignment of tetrads at metaphase plate
E) both B and D
How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?
A) by allowing independent assortment of chromosomes
B) by allowing random fertilization
C) by allowing crossing over
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
8 million
For a species with a diploid number of 10 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?
Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of
the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I.
When pairs of homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I, ________________.
the sister chromatids remain linked to one another.
What name is given to the process that restores the diploid number of chromosomes?
At the end of ________ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids.
Telophase I
Synapsis occurs during _______________.
Prophase I
Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _______________.
Anaphase I
In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to ________ genetically different gametes.
A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is an _____________.
Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of a dividing cell during _____________.
Meiosis I
Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that
A) homologous chromosomes synapse.
B) DNA replicates before the division.
C) the daughter cells are diploid.
D) sister chromatids separate during anaphase.
E) the chromosome number is reduced.
sister chromatids separate during anaphase
If the DNA content of a diploid cell in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is x, then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I would be
A) 0.25x
B) 0.5x
C) x.
D) 2x.
E) 4x.
How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n = 8)?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 8
D) 16
E) 32
The immediate product of meiosis in a plant is a
A) spore.
B) gamete.
C) sporophyte.
D) gametophyte.
E) zygote.
Multicellular haploid organisms
A) are typically called sporophytes.
B) produce new cells for growth by meiosis.
C) produce gametes by mitosis.
D) are found only in aquatic environments.
E) are the direct result of fertilization.
produce gametes by mitosis
Crossing over usually contributes to genetic variation by exchanging chromosomal segments between
non-sister chromatids of homologues
In comparing the typical life cycles of plants and animals, a stage found in plants but not in animals
is a _____________ _______________.
multicellular haploid

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