Biology Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

water, oxygen, food
what are 3 things animals need to survive?
1. to stay hydrated
2. break down food to get energy
3. get energy and nutrients
why do we need water, oxygen, and food?
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the process that releases energy from food (carbs) in the presence of oxygen
cellular respiration
6CO2 + C6H12O6 —> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

oxygen + glucose –> carbon dioxide + water + ATP

cellular respiration equation
what is the most important product of cellular respiration?
what’s the most important organelle?
-site of cellular respiration
-“powerhouse” of cell (provides all the cell’s energy)
-double membrane (inner membrane folded to increase surface area for electron transport chain)
what is the mitochondria?
aerobic and anaerobic
what are the 2 types of cellular respiration?
-“air” oxygen is present
-3 steps : glycolysis, krebs cycle, electron transport chain
-without oxygen
-2 steps : glycolysis, fermentation
what do aerobic and anaerobic share?
what is step 1 of aerobic respiration?
process in which 1 molecule of glucose is broken i half producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3 carbon compound)
what is glycolysis?
where does glycolysis take place?
2 ATP molecules
what is the result of glycolysis?
glycolysis (diagram)
glycolysis (diagram)
the krebs cycle
what is step 2 in aerobic respiration?
the process of which pyruvic acid is broken into carbon dioxide
what is the krebs cycle?
where does the krebs cycle take place?
generates high energy electrons (needed in step 3)
what is the main function of the krebs cycle?
2 ATP molecules
what is the result of the krebs cycle?
electron transport chain
what is the third step in aerobic respiration?
uses high energy electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to convert ADP (no energy) into ATP (with energy)
what does the electron transport chain do?
where does the ETC take place?
32 ATP
what is the result of the ETC?
in the ETC
where is the most ATP produced during cellular respiration?
in the ETC! making it aerobic! oxygen catches the extra H+ and electrons and makes water
when is oxygen used in aerobic respiration?
citric acid cycle
what’s another name for the krebs cycle?
glycolysis- 2 ATP
krebs cycle- 2 ATP
total- 36 ATP!!!
total gain of ATP from aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
what takes place if no oxygen is present?
-cellular respiration=fermentation
-product of ATP without oxygen
-if there is no oxygen=fermentation
anaerobic respiration
what is step 1 of anaerobic respiration?
-2 ways
-1.) lactic acid fermentation
-2.) alcohol fermentation
what is step 2 of anaerobic respiration?
produces lactic acid that builds up in muscle
-humans, some bacteria (dairy, yogurt, cheese)
what is lactic acid fermentation?
produces alcohol and carbon dioxide (bread) as wastes
-other bacteria (yeast)
what is alcohol fermentation?
-much less efficient than aerobic cellular respiration
-no ATP is produced during lactic acid or alcohol fermentation
downsides to anaerobic respiration
glucose–> 2 pyruvic acids + 2 ATP
what are the reactants and products of glycolysis?
pyruvic acid–> CO2 + high energy electrons + 2 ATP
what are the reactants and products of the krebs cycle?
electron taxi
what is NADH?
process by which plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates (sugar and starches) and oxygen
photosynthesis diagram
photosynthesis diagram
carbon dioxide + water + light energy –> glucose + oxygen

6CO2 + 6H2O–> C6H12O6 + 6O2

photosyntheis equation
1.) light dependent reactions
2.) the calvin cycle (dark reaction)
what are the 2 steps of photosynthesis?
-uses sun
-produce oxygen and ATP
light dependent reactions
-produces glucose (C6H12O6)
-carbon fixation
-separation of carbon from carbon dioxide
-takes in CO2 from air, ATP from light reaction, and hydrogen
the calvin cycle (dark reaction)
soak up sun and take in carbon dioxide
why are leaves important in photosynthesis?
soak up water and nutrients
why are roots important in photosynthesis?
bring leaves close to sun and carry water and nutrients through plant (xylem and phloem)
why are stems important in photosynthesis?
site of photosynthesis, have chlorophyll inside which makes it green
why are chloroplasts important in photosynthesis?
the major photosynthetic pigment; needed by organisms in order to do photosynthesis (absorb light energy); makes plants green
why is chlorophyll important in photosynthesis?
contain other pigments found in leaves, fruit, and flowers
why are chromoplasts important in photosynthesis?

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