Biology Chapter 8

ATP has three phosphates; ADP has two
What is the difference between ATP and ADP?
autotrophs
Organisms that make their own food are called
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ATP to ADP
Energy is released upon the conversion of
carry out active transport
One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to
Mushrooms feed by absorbing decomposing nutrients from organisms.
Why are mushrooms considered heterotrophs?
CO2 and H2O
The reactants of photosynthesis are
thylakoid membranes
Chlorophyll molecules are located in the
chloroplasts
Photosynthesis takes place inside organelles called
have a lot of energy and require a carrier to be transported.
When chlorophyll absorbs light, the electrons produced are analogous to a hot potato in that both
The leaf would lose its green color due to the breakdown of chlorophyll in the leaf.
What would likely be the result of covering a healthy, green leaf with aluminum foil?
electrons
The photosystems contain pigments that absorb light and pass the energy on to
ATP and NADPH
The major products of the light-dependent reactions are
the Calvin cycle
In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is used to make sugars during
They provide the energy required to build high-energy sugars.
What is the function of NADPH and ATP in the Calvin cycle?
by sealing their leaves against water loss and trapping carbon as organic acids.
How do CAM plants photosynthesize under bright, hot conditions without drying out?
plants
Which of the following are autotrophs?
deer
plants
leopards
mushrooms
ATP
Which of the following is used by cells to store and release energy needed to power cellular processes?
DNA
ATP
H2O
CO2
less
The amount of energy stored in a molecule of ATP compared to the amount stored in a molecule of glucose is
light and heat
When a candle burns, energy is released in the form of
water and carbon dioxide
In addition to light and chlorophyll, photosynthesis requires
reflects green light
The leaves of a plant appear green because chlorophyll…
light absorbtion
The first process in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is
NADPH
Which substance from the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy for the Calvin cycle?
Calvin cycle
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are also known as the
hydrogen ions
ATP synthase in the chloroplast membranes makes ATP, utilizing the energy of highly concentrated
hot, dry conditions
CAM plants are specialized to survive under what conditions that would harm most other kinds of plants?
make their own food from carbon dioxide and water.
Autotrophs differ from heterotrophs because they
chlorophyll
The principal pigment in plants is
sugars
Which of the following is NOT produced in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
NADPH
sugars
hydrogen ions
ATP
green
The color of light that is least useful to a plant during photosynthesis is
absorption of light energy
The first step in photosynthesis is the
oxygen
In a typical plant, all of the following factors are necessary for photosynthesis EXCEPT
chlorophyll
light
oxygen
water
ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups.
Why is ATP useful to cells?
Plants convert the energy of sunlight into the chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
What happens during the process of photosynthesis?
Compound used to store and release energy.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Organism that obtains food by consuming other living things also called a consumer.
heterotroph
Organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce it’s own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
autotroph
Process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
photosynthesis
Adenosine Triphosphate; one of the most important compounds that cells use to store and release energy
What is ATP and what is its role in the cell?
ADP contains some energy but not as much as ATP. ADP is “partially” charged and ATP is “fully” charged. When you add an additional phosphate to ADP it becomes ATP (fully charged).
Explain how ATP and ADP are each like a battery. Which one is “partially” charged and which one is “fully” charged? Why?
The sun
What is the ultimate source of energy for plants?
Heterotrophs obtain energy by consuming other living things. Autotrophs are able to use light energy from the sun to produce their own food.
How do heterotrophs obtain energy? How is this different from how autotrophs obtain energy?
Mushrooms cannot produce their own food. They obtain food from organisms in the environment that are decomposing.
Why are decomposers like mushrooms considered heterotrophs and not autotrophs?
Pigments (chlorophyll) capture energy from sunlight. That light energy is transferred to the electrons in the chlorophyll molecule. Increasing energy levels in the electrons produces a steady supply of high-energy electrons and makes photosynthesis work.
What role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
A compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
What are electron carrying molecules?
Water and carbon dioxide are the reactants and high-energy sugars and oxygen are the products.
What are the reactants and the products of photosynthesis?
Light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun’s energy.
Pigment
Principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms.
Chlorophyll
Saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts.
Thylakoid
Fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids.
stroma
Carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.
NADP+
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH.
light-dependent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH
light-independent reactions
Chlorophyll absorbs light very well and a large fraction of that light is transferred directly to electrons.
Why are pigments such as chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis?
Plants tend not to absorb yellow light so photosynthesis will occur at a slower rate under pure yellow light.
How well would a plant grow under pure yellow light? Explain.
NADPH carries the high-energy electrons that were produced by light absorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
What is the function of NADPH?
The conversion of NADP+ into NADPH. NADP+ accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons, along with a hydrogen ion (H+)
How is light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis?
NADP+ is needed to pick up the hydrogen from the water to create NADPH. A shortage would cause photosynthesis to slow down or stop.
How would photosynthesis be affected if there were a shortage of NADP+ in the cells of plants?
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide (reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products).
Describe the overall process of photosynthesis, including the reactants and products.
The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
What happens during the light-dependent reactions?
ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars.
What happens during the light-independent reactions?
Cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
photosystem
Series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions.
electron transport chain
Cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions (H+) to pass through it.
ATP synthase
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar.
Calvin cycle
Photosystem II, Electron Transport Chain, Photosystem I, Hydrogen Ion Movement, ATP Formation
Put the events of the light-dependent reaction in the order in which they occur and describe how each step is dependent on the step that comes before it.
Light-Dependent Reactions:
1. take place in the thylakoids
2. reactant is water
3. product is oxygen

Light Independent Reactions:
1. take place in the stroma of the chloroplast
2. reactant is carbon dioxide
3. product is high-energy sugars

List at least three differences between the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
Temperature, light intensity and availability of water
What are the three primary factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?
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