Biology MIcrobes & Fungi Practice Test

C.) refrigeration
Which of the following will NOT kill bacteria?
A.) chemical disinfectant
B.) frying
C.) refrigeration
D.) boiling
D.) treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines.
Viral diseases can be…
A.) prevented with antibiotics but not treated with vaccines.
B.) prevented with vaccines but not treated with antibiotics.
C.) treated with vaccines and prevented with antibiotics.
D.) treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines.
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A.) absorbing them from dead or decaying matter.
Fungus-like protists get nutrients by
A.) absorbing them from dead or decaying matter.
B.) living as an animal parasite.
C.) photosynthesis.
D.) none of the above
C.) have cell walls.
Fungi resemble plants in that they both always
A.) are multicellular.
B.) grow from the ground.
C.) have cell walls.
D.) have stems.
B.) cellular slime molds, acellular slime molds, water molds
Which of the following groups includes only fungus-like protists?
A.) cellular slime molds, acellular slime molds, animal-like protists
B.) cellular slime molds, acellular slime molds, water molds
C.) cellular slime molds, brown algae, water molds
D.) dellular slime molds, fungi, water molds
C.) carry out photosynthesis.
Fungi do NOT
A.) digest food outside their bodies.
B.) absorb food through their cell walls.
C.) carry out photosynthesis.
D.) grow their own food source
D.) nucleic acids.
All viruses are made of proteins and
A.) bacteriophages.
B.) prophages.
C.) endospores.
D.) nucleic acids.
D.) bind the virus to the surface of a host cell.
A viral capsid functions to
A.) destroy a host cell.
B.) transcribe viral genes.
C.) force a host cell to make copies of the virus.
D.) bind the virus to the surface of a host cell.
D.) all of the above
Which of the following is/are used to identify prokaryotes?
A.) cell shape
B.) the way prokaryotes obtain energy
C.) the way prokaryotes move
D.) all of the above
C.) oxygen.
Yeasts obtain energy by alcoholic fermentation in the absence of
A.) carbon dioxide.
B.) moisture.
C.) oxygen.
D.) sugar.
D.) near the surface of lakes, streams and oceans
Where are you likely to find a photoautotroph?
A.) in your digestive system
B.) in your refrigerator
C.) in the darkness of the ocean
D.) near the surface of lakes, streams and oceans
B.) capsid
The outer protein coat of a virus is called a
A.) bacteriophage.
B.) capsid.
C.) tail sheath.
D.) DNA core.
C.) vary greatly in size and structure.
Viruses
A.) are all about the same size.
B.) can be seen with a basic compound light microscope.
C.) vary greatly in size and structure.
D.) rarely contain DNA or RNA.
A.) DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat
What is the basic structure of a virus?
A.) DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat
B.) a tiny cell surrounded by a cell wall
C.) a capsid surrounded by a protein coat
D.) a tail sheath surrounded by tail fibers
A.) fruiting body.
A mushroom is a fungal
A.) fruiting body.
B.) lichen.
C.) yeast.
D.) mycorrhiza.
A.) an enormous mass of algae.
A bloom is
A.) an enormous mass of algae.
B.) the clouding of water by sewage.
C.) a symbiotic relationship between algae and coral.
D.) none of the above
A.) They produce much or Earth’s oxygen through photosynthesis.
Why are algae considered one of the most important groups of organisms on our planet?
A.) They produce much of Earth’s oxygen through photosynthesis.
B.) They are rich in vitamin C.
C.) They produce chemicals that are used to make plastics, waxes, and paints.
D.) They produce chemicals that are used to treat health problems.
B.) mycelium.
The tangled mass that makes up the body of a fungus is the
A.) hypha.
B.) mycelium.
C.) rhizoid.
D.) stolon.
B.) phytoplankton.
The population of small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean is called
A.) chrysophytes.
B.) phytoplankton.
C.) diatoms.
D.) pyrophytes.
B.) AIDS
Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a bacterium?
A.) Lyme disease
B.) AIDS
C.) tuberculosis
D.) tooth decay
D.) all of the above
Some proteins derived from algae include
A.) chemicals in plants, waxes, paints, and lubricants.
B.) drugs for stomach ulcers and high blood pressure.
C.) thickeners for food.
D.) all of the above
C.) C
Which cell shape in Figure 19-2 is called a coccus?
A.) B
B.) A
C.) C
D.) none of the above
D.) their cell shape
Figure 19-2 shows how prokaryotes can be identified by
A.) their methods for obtaining energy.
B.) the composition of their cell walls.
C.) their reaction to the Gram stain.
D.) their cell shape.
D.) all of the above
Humans use bacteria to
A.) mine minerals from the ground.
B.) synthesize drugs.
C.) clean up small oil spills.
D.) all of the above
B.) both living and dead organisms.
Fungi feed on
A.) only living organisms.
B.) both living and dead organisms.
C.) only other fungi.
D.) only dead organisms.
D.) all of the above
What characteristic of plants is shared by green algae?
A.) multicellularity
B.) cell wall composition
C.) photosynthetic pigments
D.) all of the above
A.) coded in either RNA or DNA
The instructions for making new copies of a virus are
A.) coded in either RNA or DNA.
B.) found only in bacteriophages.
C.) a part of a virus/s capsid.
D.) coded in surface proteins attached to the protein coat.
A.) absorb their food.
All fungi
A.) absorb their food.
B.) have chlorophyll.
C.) produce mushrooms.
D.) make their food.
B.) spore.
Dark fuzz that grows on bread is an example of
A.) mold.
B.) spore.
C.) yeast.
D.) toadstool.
D.) all of the above
Which of the following describes a role of bacteria in the environment?
A.) fixing nitrogen
B.) recycling nutrients
C.) carrying out photosynthesis
D.) all of the above
A.) by releasing toxins
Which of the following is a way that bacteria cause disease?
A.) by releasing toxins
B.) by nitrogen fixation
C.) by conjugation
D.) by capsids
A.) directly from inorganic molecules.
Unlike photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs obtain energy
A.) directly from inorganic molecules.
B.) directly from the sun.
C.) photoheterotrophs.
D.) chemoautotrophs.
A.) heterotrophs.
Most prokaryotes are
A.) heterotrophs.
B.) photoautotrophs.
C.) photohetertrophs.
D.) chemoautotrophs.
A.) prokaryote.
A protist is any organism that is not a plant, an animal, a fungus or a/an
A.) prokaryote.
B.) archaebacterium.
C.) eukaryote.
D.) eubacterium.
D.) They’re composed of an alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus living together.
Which statement about lichens is correct?
A.) They grow in soil.
B.) They are not tolerant of harsh conditions.
C.) They cannot make their own food.
D.) They’re composed of an alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus living together.
D.) a fungus.
The human disease ringworm is caused by
A.) yeasts.
B.) worms.
C.) bacteria.
D.) a fungus.
D.) breaking down dead organisms.
An important role of fungi in an ecosystem is
A.) killing bacteria.
B.) making alcohol.
C.) photosynthesis.
D.) breaking down dead organisms.
D.) bursting of the host cell.
A lytic infection concludes with the
A.) production of messenger RNA.
B.) production of a prophage.
C.) embedding of viral DNA into the host cell’s DNA.
D.) bursting of the host cell.
A.) carbon dioxide.
Bread rises because fermentation by yeast produces
A.) carbon dioxide.
B.) water.
C.) spores.
D.) rhizoids.
C.) pathogens.
Bacteria that cause diseases are called
A.) viruses.
B.) endospores.
C.) pathogens.
D.) antibiotics.
B.) the make up of their cell walls.
Eubacteria and archaebacteria differ in
A.) the presence of a nucleus.
B.) the make up of their cell walls.
C.) size.
D.) the presence of a cell wall.
D.) are thought to be the ancestors or eukaryotes.
Unlike eubacteria, archaebacteria
A.) have cell walls.
B.) are prokaryotes.
C.) have 2 cell membranes.
D.) are though to be the ancestors of eukaryotes.
A.) methanogens
Which of the following are members of the kingdom Archaebacteria?
A.) methanogens
B.) eubacteria
C.) eukaryotes
D.) E. coli
B.) shapes of prokaryotes.
Bacilli, cocci, and spirilla are
A.) Gram stains.
B.) shapes of prokaryotes.
C.) methods of prokaryotic movement.
D.) ways that prokaryotes obtain energy.
B.) break down nutrients in dead matter.
Bacteria are sometimes called nature’s recyclers because they
A.) undergo conjugation.
B.) break down nutrients in dead matter.
C.) can switch between respiration and fermentation.
D.) carry out photosynthesis.
D.) decomposers.
Bacteria that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances that are taken up by plant roots are called
A.) endospores.
B.) flagella.
C.) photoautotrophs.
D.) decomposers.
B.) bacteria only.
Bacteriophages infect
A.) other viruses.
B.) bacteria only.
C.) any available host cell.
D.) cells undergoing the lytic cycle.
A.) break down the body’s tissues.
A bacterial infection results when bacteria
A.) break down the body’s tissues.
B.) lyse following the lytic cycle.
C.) live as obligate aerobes in the absence of oxygen.
D.) undergo conjugation inside the body.
D.) all of the above
During a lytic infection, the host cell is
A.) destroyed.
B.) prepared for the lysogenic cycle.
C.) copied many times over.
D.) all of the above
B.) take longer to multiply at low temperatures.
Food stored in a refrigerator will keep longer because the bacteria that spoil food
A.) die at low temperatures.
B.) take longer to multiply at low temperatures.
C.) require light to live.
D.) grow more slowly in the dark.
A.) Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods.
Which of the following is a characteristic of bacteria that is key to keeping them under control?
A.) Most bacteria cannot survive high temperatures for long periods.
B.) Most bacteria are resistant to harmful chemicals.
C.) Most bacteria form endospores when subjected to harsh conditions.
D.) Most bacteria do not cause good to spoil.
C.) to sterilize a hospital
Which of the following is a proper use of disinfectants?
A.) as an antibiotic
B.) to start conjugation
C.) to sterilize a hospital
D.) to preserve foods
A.) botulism
Which of the following is NOT a viral disease?
A.) botulism
B.) AIDS
C.) measles
D.) polio
D.) disrupting the body’s normal equilibrium.
Viruses cause disease by
A.) producing toxins that harm the body.
B.) reproducing independently inside the body.
C.) forming endospores in the body.
D.) disrupting the body’s normal equilibrium.
C.) food vacuole.
In an amoeba, a small cavity within the cytoplasm that stores food is called a
A.) gullet.
B.) pseudopod.
C.) food vacuole.
D.) contractile vacuole.
A.) sarcodines
To which phylum do amoebas, foraminiferans, and heliozoans belong?
A.) sarcodines
B.) ciliates
C.) sporozoans
D.) pseudopods
B.) absorb food through their cell membrane.
Zooflagellates may live in lakes and streams, where they
A.) penetrate and live within cells of a host.
B.) absorb food through their cell membrane.
C.) feed by sweeping food particles into their gullet.
D.) feed by surrounding their meal and taking it inside themselves.
C.) malaria.
The sporozoan Plasmodium causes the disease known as
A.) African sleeping sickness.
B.) amebic dysentery.
C.) malaria.
D.) algal bloom.
C.) amebic dysentery
Which of the following diseases does the animal-like protist known as Entamoeba cause?
A.) malaria
B.) African sleeping sickness
C.) amebic dysentery
D.) potato blight
C.) the bite of Anopheles mosquito.
A person who comes down with malaria can infer that he or she contracted it from
A.) contaminated water supplies.
B.) infection by the animal-like protist Giardia.
C.) the bite of the Anopheles mosquito.
D.) the bite of the tsetse fly.
B.) chlorophyll and accessory pigments
Which substances allow algae to harvest and use the energy from sunlight?
A.) cilium and fucoxanthin
B.) chlorophyll and accessory pigments
C.) phucobilin and flagellum
D.) oogonium and antheridium
B.) an increase in the range of depths at which algae can live
What effect did the evolution of different forms or chlorophyll in algae have?
A.) a decrease in the range of depths at which algae can live
B.) an increase in the range of depths at which algae can live
C.) no effect on the range of depths at which algae can live
D.) a reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of algae
B.) Bacillariophyta
To which phylum of unicellular plant-like algae do the diatoms belong?
A.) Euglenophyta
B.) Bacillariophyta
C.) Chrysophyta
D.) Pyrrophyta
B.) They can be both photosynthetic and heterotrophic.
Which of the statements is true about dinoflagellates?
A.) They contain bright yellow pigments.
B.) They can be both photosynthetic and heterotrophic.
C.)Many species are luminescent.
D.) They possess pillbox-shaped cell walls of silica.
A.) Ulva.
An example of a multicellular green alga is
A.) Ulva.
B.) Chlamydomonas.
C.) Volvox.
D.) Fucus.
C.) as a photosynthesizer
Which of the following is algae’s most important contribution to humans?
A.) as a source for industrial chemicals
B.) as a source for medicinal drugs
C.) as a photosynthesizer
D.) as a direct food source for humans
A.) water molds.
The fungus-like protists that thrive on dead or decaying organic matter in water, some of which are plant parasites on land are
A.) water molds.
B.) acellular slime molds.
C.) cellular slime molds.
D.) true fungi.
A.) plasmodia.
When the amoeba-like cells of acellular slime molds fuse, they form structures with many nuclei called
A.) plasmodia.
B.) zoosporangia.
C.) spores.
D.) filaments.
A.) fungus-like protists.
Protists that break down organic material include the
A.) fungus-like protists.
B.) animal-like protists.
C.) plant-like protists.
D.) none of the above
C.) topsoil.
The work of fungus-like protists and other decomposers is important in improving the quality of
A.) salt water.
B.) fresh water.
C.) topsoil.
D.) potato crops.
C.) water mold
A mildewed grape crop might my caused by a/an
A.) cellular slime mold.
B.) acellular slime mold.
C.) water mold.
D.) none of the above
C.) both sexually and asexually.
Most fungi reproduce
A.) asexually only.
B.) sexually only.
C.) both sexually and asexually.
D.) by budding.
D.) fuse
When hyphae of opposite mating types meet, they first
A.) enter mitosis.
B.) grow and develop.
C.) enter meiosis.
D.) fuse.
A.) diploid.
Only during a small part of their life cycles are most fungi
A.) diploid.
B.) haploid.
C.) 1N.
D.) 3N.
C.) club fungi.
Mushrooms are classified as
A.) common molds.
B.) sac fungi.
C.) club fungi.
D.) imperfect fungi.
C.) cap.
In mushrooms, the basidia are found in the
A.) base.
B.) stalk.
C.) cap.
D.) root.
C.) It is the source of an antibiotic.
Which statement about Penicillium is correct?
A.) It produces mushrooms.
B.) It causes bread to rise.
C.) It is the source of an antibiotic.
D.) It causes athlete’s foot.
D.) plants.
Millions of years ago, fungi might have been important to the success of
A.) worms.
B.) grasshoppers.
C.) bacteria.
D.) plants.
C.) digestive enzymes.
The breakdown of dead organisms is sped on by the fungal production of
A.) alcohols.
B.) acids.
C.) digestive enzymes.
D.) recycled nutrients.
B.) alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus.
Figure 21-2 illustrates an association of a/an
A.) cyanobacterium and a plant.
B.) alga or cyanobacterium and a fungus.
C.) plant and a fungus.
D.) alga and a plant.
B.) mutualism.
The association of plants and fungi in mycorrhizae illustrates a type of relationship called
A.) parasitism.
B.) mutualism.
C.) competition.
D.) parallelism.
True
True/False: Many ARCHAEBACTERIA live in extreme environments, such as Utah’s Great Salt Lake.
True
True/False: SLIME MOLDS are fungus-like protists that play key roles in recycling organic matter.
False, UNICELLULAR
True/False: Protists are a diverse group of mainly MULTICELLULAR eukaryotes.
True
True/False: Slime molds and water molds are important DECOMPOSERS.
False
In lichens, A PLANT associated with a fungus carries out photosynthesis.
False, VACCINE
AN ANTIOBIOTIC is a preparation of weakened or killed virus or viral proteins.
True
Fungi ABSORB their food.
True
Bacteria can cause disease by releasing TOXINS into the body.
False, HETEROTROPHS
Fungus-like protists are AUTOTROPHS.
False, EUKARYOTIC
Fungi are PROKARYOTIC heterotrophs.
True
Early fungi may have helped PLANTS obtain nutrients.
True
Bacteria can be used to synthesize DRUGS throiugh genetic-engineering techniques.
True
A DISINFECTANT is a chemical solution that kills bacteria.
False, CILIA
Ciliates use FLAGELLA for feeding and movement.
True
Bacteria are used in the production of a variety of FOODS AND BEVERAGES
True
PLANTS AND ANIMALS benefit from nitrogen-fixating bacteria.
True
Blooms of dinoflagellates can cause RED TIDES.
False, PLANTS
Mycorrhizae are beneficial associations fungi and ANIMALS.
False, CITIN
Fungal cell walls are composed of CELLULOSE.
True
Scientists reason that archaebacteria may be the ancestors of eukaryotes. If this is true, then archaebacteria and eukaryotes share a common ancestor that is MORE recent than the common ancestor of archaebacteria and eubacteria.
True
If the people in a town contracted amebic dysentery or infections by animal-like protist, Giardia, the most likely cause would be CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER.
False, DIATOMS
EUGLENAS have cell walls composed of silica and shaped like the two sides of a pillbox.
True
A high level certain toxins found in filter feeders such as clams, may be a sign that an ALGAL BLOOM has occurred.
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