biology test chapter 37

All the organisms in a particular area make up a(n) _____.
ecological niche
According to the principle of competitive exclusion, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.
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In terms of + (this member of a species pair benefits from the interaction), – (this member of a species pair is harmed by the interaction), and 0 (this member of a species pair is unaffected by the interaction), predation can be described as a _____ relationship.
The ecological relationship between termites and the wood-digesting protozoans that live in their gut is an example of _____.
changes gradually because each species responds differently to changes in environmental factors
During ecological succession, the species composition of a plant community _____.
the sun
The energy for nearly every organism in almost every ecosystem ultimately comes from _____.
what it eats
An organism’s “trophic level” refers to _____. (
secondary and tertiary consumers
Consider this segment of a food web: Snails and grasshoppers eat pepper plants; spiders eat grasshoppers; shrews eat snails and spiders; owls eat shrews. The shrew occupies the trophic level(s) of _____.
What generally flows in one direction through an ecosystem, from producers up through each level of consumers, and is not recycled?
a tropical coral reef
Which of the following ecosystems would probably have the highest primary productivity? Assume that we are comparing similar sizes of each ecosystem.
nutrients and other life-sustaining molecules are in limited supply and must be continually recycled
Biogeochemical cycles are crucial to ecosystem function because _____.
An ecosystem is unlikely to be limited by the supply of _____ because it is obtained from the air.
the burning of larger amounts of wood and fossil fuels
The main cause of the recent increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere is _____.
a population of organisms living close enough together for potential reaction
relationships with individuals of other species in the community
interspecific interactions
when populations of two different species compete for the same limited resource
interspecific competition
both benefit
one benefits, one is harmed
one benefits, one is harmed
one benefits, one is harmed
parasitism (pathogens too)
one benefits, one has no difference
(at bottom) the trophic level that supports all others, usually plants
eat the producers, herbivores
primary consumers
eat the primary consumers (herbivores), small mammals
secondary consumers
eat the secondary consumers, a little larger animal
tertiary consumers
(at top) eat the tertiary consumers, in terrestrial ecosystems
quaternary consumers
get energy from dead material (detritus)
detritivores and decomposers
dead material, feed detritivores and decomposers
breakdown of organic materials to inorganic ones
biological community change
ecological succession
lifeless area with no soil
primary succession
a disturbance destroyed an existing community, but left the soil intact
secondary succession
consists of all organisms in a community and the abiotic environment and the organisms interact
an ecosystem that includes biotic and abiotic components
biogeochemical cycle
abiotic reservoir
biotic reservoir
performed by some bacteria, converts nitrogen to compound of nitrogen that can be used by plants
nitrogen fixation

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