Bioolgy

B.
It can move around in its environment.
Based on the cellular structure of organism 3, which of the following is a characteristic of the organism?
A.
It can conduct photosynthesis.
B.
It can move around in its environment.
C.
It can produce male and female gametes.
D.
It can survive for long periods by storing food.
C.
storing genetic material
Which of the following is a function of the nucleus in organism 2?
A.
absorbing sunlight
B.
releasing usable energy
C.
storing genetic material
D.
producing food molecules
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A.
cellular respiration
Which process do elk and other Yellowstone animals use to convert energy in their food into ATP?
A.
cellular respiration
B.
filtration
C.
osmosis
D.
photosynthesis
D.
proteins
In the three organisms, what are synthesized by the ribosomes?
A.
carbohydrates
B.
lipids
C.
nucleic acids
D.
proteins
A.
organisms 1 and 2 only, because both have a nucleus
Which of the following identifies the organisms that are eukaryotic and gives the best explanation?
A.
organisms 1 and 2 only, because both have a nucleus
B.
organisms 2 and 3 only, because both use flagella
C.
organisms 1, 2, and 3, because they all have ribosomes
D.
organisms 1, 2, and 3, because they are all single celled
Many different microscopic organisms can be found in pond ecosystems, including the three organisms shown in the diagram below. The primary cellular structures in each of these single-celled organisms are labeled in the diagrams. Some of the structures are common to all three organisms and the other structures are not.
One of the three organisms can obtain energy through photosynthesis.
Based on the diagrams, identify which organism is able to perform photosynthesis. Explain your reasoning.
Identify the two reactants for photosynthesis.
Identify the structure shown in the diagram that stores a product of photosynthesis in this organism.
At times, this photosynthetic organism can switch to being heterotrophic.
Describe a condition that would favor this organism being heterotrophic. Explain your answer.
C.
The virus uses the animal’s cellular machinery to reproduce inside the animal
Bluetongue virus causes severe disease in sheep and cattle. High levels of infection in livestock populations can threaten the livestock industry.
Which of the following statements best describes how a bluetongue virus particle reproduces in its sheep or cattle host?
A.
The virus immediately kills the animal and then escapes to reproduce.
B.
The virus makes spores that are shed on the ground with the animal’s wastes.
C.
The virus uses the animal’s cellular machinery to reproduce inside the animal.
D.
The virus releases eggs into the nutrient-rich environment of the animal’s digestive tract.
D.
Viruses need to enter a living cell to reproduce, but cells reproduce on their own.
Which of the following statements describes a difference between how viruses reproduce and how cells reproduce?
A.
Viruses can reproduce sexually or asexually, whereas cells only reproduce sexually.
B.
Viruses reproduce by DNA translation, whereas cells reproduce by DNA transcription.
C.
Viruses need carbon dioxide to reproduce, but cells need oxygen to reproduce.
D.
Viruses need to enter a living cell to reproduce, but cells reproduce on their own.
A.
cellular respiration
During exercise, a person’s muscles need a constant supply of ATP. To meet this need, the rate of which of the following processes increases?
A.
cellular respiration
B.
mitosis
C.
protein synthesis
D.
transcription
A.
cell wall
Which of the following structures helps maintain the shape of a plant cell even when water is scarce?
A.
cell wall
B.
endoplasmic reticulum
C.
Golgi apparatus
D.
plasma membrane
A.
Bacillus subtilis, a bacterium
A scientist is studying gene expression in a prokaryote. Which of the following organisms could the scientist be studying?
A.
Bacillus subtilis, a bacterium
B.
Leucobryum glaucum, a moss
C.
Lycoperdon pyriforme, a fungus
D.
Caenorhabditis elegans, a roundworm
B.
Skin cells constantly need to be replaced or repaired.
Different types of cells in the human body undergo mitosis at different rates. Which of the following statements best explains why skin cells frequently undergo mitosis?
A.
Skin cells contain molecules of DNA.
B.
Skin cells constantly need to be replaced or repaired.
C.
Skin cells have large numbers of sensory nerve receptors.
D.
Skin cells constantly need to produce antibodies to fight off infections.
A.
chlorophyll
Some types of bacteria are able to perform photosynthesis. These bacteria must therefore contain which of the following in their membranes?
A.
chlorophyll
B.
glucose
C.
mitochondria
D.
ribosomes
B.
32
Domestic horses have 64 chromosomes. How many chromosomes should be in an egg cell of a female horse?
A.
16
B.
32
C.
64
D.
128
A.
ATP
What directly supplies the energy needed to actively transport sodium ions across the plasma membrane of a cell?
A.
ATP
B.
DNA
C.
enzymes
D.
lipids
B.
Central Vacuole
Photosynthesis is most likely to occur in which of the following cells?
A.
Mitochondria
B.
Central Vacuole C.
Contractile Vacuole D.
DNA
A.
ATP
In the first step of glycolysis, glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate. Which of the following supplies the energy for the reaction?
A.
ATP
B.
RNA
C.
oxygen
D.
hydrogen
C.
Capsule with DNA
Which of the following diagrams represents a virus?
A.
Nucleus
B.
Chromosome
C.
Capsule with DNA
D.
Food Vacuole
C.
Two gametes combine.
Under normal conditions, which of following causes a zygote to form?
A.
Mitosis takes place.
B.
Meiosis takes place.
C.
Two gametes combine.
D.
Asexual reproduction occurs.
A.
bacterium
Which of the following organisms has the simplest cellular structure?
A.
bacterium
B.
earthworm
C.
mushroom
D.
sunflower
B.
mitosis
Hydras are organisms that can reproduce by forming buds. The buds detach and grow into new organisms with genetic material that is identical to the parent. A parent hydra with one bud is shown in the diagram below.

Which process is directly responsible for the formation of the bud on the hydra?
A.
cellular respiration
B.
mitosis
C.
osmosis
D.
spore development

A.
Energy is released in a cell
Which of the following happens when a phosphate-phosphate bond in an ATP molecule is broken?
A.
Energy is released in a cell.
B.
Light energy is absorbed in a plant cell.
C.
Water is transported into an animal cell.
D.
Lysosome contents are released in a cell.
B.
The prokaryotic cells do not have nuclei.
A student views cells from several different prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms under a high-powered microscope. Which of the following statements describes how the prokaryotic cells appear different from the eukaryotic cells?
A.
The prokaryotic cells are much larger.
B.
The prokaryotic cells do not have nuclei.
C.
The prokaryotic cells have mitochondria.
D.
The prokaryotic cells have a less distinct shape.
C.
Photosynthesis occurs only in cells containing chlorophyll, but cellular respiration occurs in all cells.
Which of the following statements describes a difference between photosynthesis and cellular respiration in plants?
A.
Photosynthesis occurs only during the day, whereas cellular respiration occurs only at night.
B.
Photosynthesis involves only one reaction, whereas cellular respiration involves many steps.
C.
Photosynthesis occurs only in cells containing chlorophyll, but cellular respiration occurs in all cells.
D.
Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy, but cellular respiration converts light energy into heat energy.
D.
The organism is eukaryotic because it has membrane-bound organelles.
A single-celled organism that a student observed under a microscope is shown below.

Which of the following statements best describes this organism?
A.
The organism is eukaryotic because it has a plasma membrane.
B.
The organism is prokaryotic because it can reproduce asexually.
C.
The organism is prokaryotic because it can synthesize its own food.
D.
The organism is eukaryotic because it has membrane-bound organelles.

C.
viruses
Yellow fever, encephalitis, and measles are diseases in humans. The disease-causing agents take over the machinery of the cells and use it to reproduce.
Based on this information, the agents that cause these diseases are which of the following?
A.
fungi
B.
ticks
C.
viruses
D.
worms
A.
ATP
Some cell types contain thousands of mitochondria. These cells are likely to use large amounts of which of the following?
A.
ATP
B.
carbon dioxide
C.
DNA
D.
nitrogen
A.
active transport
The diagram below shows changes in the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions inside and outside a nerve cell. These changes prepare the nerve cell to conduct an electrical impulse.

Which of the following processes is directly responsible for these changes in the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions inside and outside the nerve cell?
A.
active transport
B.
enzyme activity
C.
osmosis
D.
transcription

B.
The copies of each chromosome are separating.
The illustration below shows a phase of mitosis.

Which of the following statements describes what is occurring in this phase?
A.
The chromosomes are duplicating their DNA.
B.
The copies of each chromosome are separating.
C.
The chromosomes are moving toward the center of the cell.
D.
The homologous chromosomes are preparing for crossing over.

A.
1
The diagram below shows a cell with four of its parts numbered.

Which numbered part is a ribosome?
A.
1
B.
2
C.
3
D.
4

A.
a large vacuole
A cell is shown in the diagram below.

Which of the following cell characteristics provides evidence that this cell comes from a plant and not from an animal?
A.
a large vacuole
B.
a single nucleus
C.
a functional mitochondrion
D.
a semipermeable cell membrane

D.
Both types of cells contain mitochondria.
Which of the following statements describes a way in which plant cells and animal cells are similar?
A.
Both types of cells are prokaryotic.
B.
Both types of cells are autotrophic.
C.
Both types of cells have cell walls.
D.
Both types of cells contain mitochondria.
C.
storing genetic information
A diagram of a cell is shown below.

Which of the following is a function performed by the cell part labeled X?
A.
generating ATP
B.
synthesizing polypeptides
C.
storing genetic information
D.
breaking down unneeded materials

D.
the amount of energy released in muscle cells
ATPases are enzymes that help convert ATP into ADP in cells. When a person exercises, ATPases directly increase which of the following?
A.
the amount of energy stored in muscle cells
B.
the number of mitochondria in muscle cells
C.
the number of muscle cells in muscle tissue
D.
the amount of energy released in muscle cells
A.
binary fission
Antibiotics are helpful in treating an infection when the number of bacteria becomes too large for the body’s immune system to fight on its own. What process enables the bacteria to multiply inside the body?
A.
binary fission
B.
fertilization
C.
meiosis
D.
nitrogen fixation
B.
energy to perform life processes
Some antibiotics work by disrupting ATP production in bacteria. Which of the following will the bacteria lack when ATP production is disrupted?
A.
genetic material for reproduction
B.
energy to perform life processes
C.
nucleic acids to make proteins
D.
cytoplasm to diffuse oxygen
D.
willow
The illustration below shows an organelle from a cell.

Which of the following organisms in the pond ecosystem uses this organelle to produce food?
A.
frog
B.
mayfly
C.
pickerel
D.
willow

A.
active transport
When Streptococcus pneumoniae are exposed to an antibiotic, the bacteria try to pump the antibiotic out of their cells. Which of the following mechanisms is most likely used by the Streptococcus pneumoniae to pump the antibiotic out of their cells?
A.
active transport
B.
diffusion
C.
facilitated diffusion
D.
osmosis
D.
3 and 4
Each of the illustrations below shows either a prokaryotic cell or a eukaryotic cell. Each cell is numbered.

Which two cells should be classified as prokaryotic cells?
A.
1 and 2
B.
1 and 3
C.
2 and 4
D.
3 and 4

A.
Animalia
A scientist discovered a new organism in some caves in Pennsylvania. The organism has the following characteristics:
It is multicellular.
Its cells lack cell walls.
It is motile.
It is heterotrophic.
Based on this information, to which kingdom does the organism belong?
A.
Animalia
B.
Eubacteria
C.
Fungi
D.
Plantae
B.
mitosis
The human body regularly sheds and replaces its skin cells. Which of the following processes is directly responsible for replacing these cells?
A.
meiosis
B.
mitosis
C.
osmosis
D.
transcription
D.
viral reproduction
A process is illustrated in the diagram below.

Which process is illustrated in the diagram?
A.
bacterial conjugation
B.
facilitated diffusion
C.
gamete formation
D.
viral reproduction

B.
The offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
Some unicellular protists, such as dinoflagellates, use mitosis to reproduce. Which of the following statements describes the offspring?
A.
The offspring are twice as large as the parent.
B.
The offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
C.
The offspring develop from a parent’s fertilized egg.
D.
The offspring have half as many chromosomes as the parent.
D.
Thiopedia rosea, purple sulfur bacterium
Which of the following organisms is a prokaryote?
A.
Agaricus arvensis, horse mushroom
B.
Rhizopus stolonifer, bread mold fungus
C.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker’s yeast
D.
Thiopedia rosea, purple sulfur bacterium
A.
bacteria
Prokaryotes are structurally simple organisms that have existed for over two billion years. Which of the following are prokaryotes?
A.
bacteria
B.
fungi
C.
plants
D.
protists
B.
nucleus—cell regulation
Which of the following matches a cell organelle with its function?
A.
chloroplast—movement
B.
nucleus—cell regulation
C.
vacuole—energy production
D.
mitochondrion—photosynthesis
B.
mitosis
The fungus Penicillium reproduces asexually and forms genetically identical spores. Which of the following processes does Penicillium use to form its spores?
A.
fertilization
B.
mitosis
C.
osmosis
D.
transcription
D.
a sperm cell with 23 chromosomes
Which of the following normally results from meiosis in a human cell that contains 46 chromosomes?
A.
an egg cell with 46 chromosomes
B.
a liver cell with 23 chromosomes
C.
a blood cell with 46 chromosomes
D.
a sperm cell with 23 chromosomes
B.
a nucleic acid core that is surrounded by a protein coat
A variety of respiratory diseases in humans can be caused by adenoviruses. Which of the following describes the structure of an adenovirus?
A.
a prokaryotic cell that is propelled by a flagellum
B.
a nucleic acid core that is surrounded by a protein coat
C.
a set of ribosomes that is held together by microtubules
D.
a single cell that contains a plasma membrane and a circular chromosome
D.
heterotrophic, yes, multicellular
The table below provides information about nutrition and cellular structure for organisms in different kingdoms.
Kingdom Nutrition Nucleus Unicellular or
Multicellular
Fungi heterotrophic yes unicellular and
multicellular
Plantae autotrophic yes multicellular
Animalia ? ? ?
What information best completes the table?
A.
autotrophic, no, unicellular
B.
autotrophic, yes, multicellular
C.
heterotrophic, no, unicellular
D.
heterotrophic, yes, multicellular
D.
virus
Which of the following is incapable of reproducing outside a host cell?
A.
alga
B.
mold
C.
moss
D.
virus
A.
ATP stores and releases energy
Which of the following statements describes the role of ATP in animal cells?
A.
ATP stores and releases energy.
B.
ATP forms the channels in the plasma membrane.
C.
ATP serves as the hereditary material in the nucleus.
D.
ATP attaches to and digests unneeded organic molecules.
C.
nucleus
A student is looking at a picture of a cell taken through a microscope. The presence of which of the following would indicate that the cell is eukaryotic?
A.
cytoplasm
B.
DNA
C.
nucleus
D.
plasma membrane
B.
cell wall
In pure water, a red blood cell from an animal will swell and burst, but a leaf cell from a plant will not. Which structure in the leaf cell is responsible for this difference?
A.
cell membrane
B.
cell wall
C.
mitochondrion
D.
nucleus
D.
the organism’s form and structure
Which of the following characteristics is most useful when classifying a eukaryote into a kingdom?
A.
how the organism feeds
B.
how the organism moves
C.
the organism’s color and mass
D.
the organism’s form and structure
B.
facilitated diffusion
Amino acids, sugars, and ions move across the cell membrane. Their movement from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration is accomplished by special proteins in the membrane.
Which of the following terms applies to this type of cell transport?
A.
active transport
B.
facilitated diffusion
C.
osmosis
D.
transcription
D.
photosynthesis
In periods of hot, dry weather, the pores on the leaf surfaces of most plants close in order to reduce water loss during the day. When these pores are closed, plants cannot take in carbon dioxide.
As a direct result, the rate of which of the following processes decreases?
A.
cellular respiration
B.
mitosis
C.
nitrogen fixation
D.
photosynthesis
C.
3
A diagram of a plant cell is shown below.

Which number identifies the organelle that functions to store water and dissolved salts?
A.
1
B.
2
C.
3
D.
4

A.
growth of the cell
The diagram below shows the cell cycle.

Which of the following activities occurs in the G1 phase?
A.
growth of the cell
B.
replication of the DNA
C.
formation of the mitotic spindle
D.
breakdown of the nuclear membrane

D.
a virus
A researcher is studying a particular disease-causing agent. The agent has a protein coat, but it lacks a nucleus, contains no other organelles, and can reproduce only when it is inside an animal cell.
The researcher should classify the agent as which of the following?
A.
a bacterium
B.
a fungus
C.
a protist
D.
a virus
The diagram below represents steps in sexual reproduction.

Which of the following occurs in the step labeled Z?
A.
fertilization
B.
meiosis
C.
mitosis
D.
translocation

A.
the organism’s cell structure
Scientists have discovered a new type of organism. To assign the organism to a domain and kingdom, which of the following is most important for scientists to know?
A.
the organism’s cell structure
B.
the organism’s population size
C.
the organism’s social behavior
D.
the organism’s reproductive rate
D.
Photosynthesis stores energy for cells, and cellular respiration releases energy for cells.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
A.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in the same organelle.
B.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are performed by all organisms.
C.
Photosynthesis produces carbon dioxide, and cellular respiration uses carbon dioxide.
D.
Photosynthesis stores energy for cells, and cellular respiration releases energy for cells.
D.
Nile blue
A lab technician needs to determine whether cells in a test tube are prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The technician has several dyes she could use to stain the cells. Four of the dyes are described in the table below.
Dye
Test
acridine orange
stains DNA and RNA
osmium tetroxide
stains lipids
eosin
stains cell cytoplasm
Nile blue
stains cell nuclei
Which dye could the technician use to determine whether the cells are prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
A.
acridine orange
B.
osmium tetroxide
C.
eosin
D.
Nile blue
C.
ribosome
Which of the following cell structures carries out the process represented by the arrows labeled “2” in the diagrams?
A.
mitochondrion
B.
nucleus
C.
ribosome
D.
vacuole
B.
Trichodina has a nucleus
The diagram below represents Trichodina.

Trichodina is a eukaryotic organism that attaches itself to fish and eats bacteria. Which of the following distinguishes Trichodina from all prokaryotes?
A.
Trichodina is unicellular.
B.
Trichodina has a nucleus.
C.
Trichodina has cytoplasm.
D.
Trichodina is heterotrophic.

C.
Plastids store starch made during photosynthesis
Which of the following describes plant cells but not animal cells?
A.
The nucleus contains the chromosomes.
B.
The ribosomes assist in protein synthesis.
C.
Plastids store starch made during photosynthesis.
D.
Mitochondria produce energy through respiration.
C.
The concentration of oxygen is greater in the alveoli than in the blood.
Which of the following statements best explains why oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood?
A.
The diaphragm draws oxygen into the alveoli at a rapid speed.
B.
Alveoli cells contain hemoglobin to transfer gases to the blood.
C.
The concentration of oxygen is greater in the alveoli than in the blood.
D.
Red blood cells move one at a time through the capillaries surrounding the alveoli.
D.
It is used for cellular respiration and maintenance.
Plants absorb solar energy during photosynthesis. The graph below represents how this energy is distributed in some plants.

Which of the following statements describes what happens to the energy represented by the section labeled X?
A.
It is recycled to the Sun.
B.
It is consumed by decomposers.
C.
It is lost to the soil and the atmosphere.
D.
It is used for cellular respiration and maintenance.

A.
ATP
Energy for most chemical reactions in cells is supplied by which of the following molecules?
A.
ATP
B.
DNA
C.
adrenaline
D.
hemoglobin
C.
lysosome
In a cell, which of the following organelles most likely contains digestive enzymes?
A.
centriole
B.
chloroplast
C.
lysosome
D.
ribosome
D.
The amount of photosynthesis by plants is lower in winter than in summer.
Air samples taken in Canada since 1986 show that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is higher on average in winter than in summer.
Which of the following statements best explains the difference in carbon dioxide concentrations?
A.
The rate of decomposition is slower in winter than in summer.
B.
The greenhouse effect is more pronounced in winter than in summer.
C.
The number of animals that are active is less in winter than in summer.
D.
The amount of photosynthesis by plants is lower in winter than in summer.
C.
plants
In the past 100 years, levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have increased as the result of the burning of fossil fuels. Other processes in the carbon cycle have absorbed some of the carbon released by this combustion.
Which of the following most likely have absorbed excess carbon released by combustion?
A.
animals
B.
glaciers
C.
plants
D.
rocks
A.
Energy from ATP is used to make glucose
An equation for a biochemical reaction is shown below.

Which of the following happens during this reaction?
A.
Energy from ATP is used to make glucose.
B.
ADP adds a high-energy bond to its structure.
C.
ADP is metabolized to provide oxygen to a cell.
D.
Energy is stored in the molecule ATP for future use.

C.
The cell would be less able to break down molecules in its cytoplasm.
If a cell’s lysosomes were damaged, which of the following would most likely occur?
A.
The cell would produce more proteins than it needs.
B.
The cell would have chloroplasts that appear yellow rather than green.
C.
The cell would be less able to break down molecules in its cytoplasm.
D.
The cell would be less able to regulate the amount of fluid in its cytoplasm.
C.
mitosis
Lung cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of normal lung cells. Which of the following processes is not appropriately regulated in the cancerous cells?
A.
fertilization
B.
meiosis
C.
mitosis
D.
transpiration
C. osmosis
If an animal cell is placed in distilled water, it will swell and burst. The bursting of the cell is a result of which biological process?
A. active transport
B. enzyme activity
C. osmosis
D. respiration
D. A bacterial cell does not have membrane-bound organelles, whereas an animal cell does.
In which of the following ways does a bacterial cell differ from an animal cell?
A. A bacterial cell is much larger than an animal cell.
B. A bacterial cell has more mitochondria than an animal cell.
C. A bacterial cell has RNA for its genetic material, whereas an animal cell does not.
D. A bacterial cell does not have membrane-bound organelles, whereas an animal cell does.
C.
DNA
Scientists believe that the first organisms that appeared on Earth were prokaryotic. Which of the following best represents what the cell structure of these organisms may have looked like?
A.
contractile vacuole
B.
chloroplast
C.
DNA
D.
nucleus
C. Photosynthesis occurs at the highest rate under the most intense light.
Mallory has four aquatic plants of the same size and species. She submerges each plant in a separate beaker filled with 200 mL of water. She then sets each beaker under a different intensity of light. Mallory observes that, of the four plants, the plant in the beaker under the most intense light gives off the most gas bubbles in a 20 min period.

Which of the following statements best explains Mallory’s observations?
A. Cells decompose most quickly under the most intense light.
B. Water evaporates from plants fastest under the most intense light.
C. Photosynthesis occurs at the highest rate under the most intense light.
D. Gases in the leaves of plants expand most under the most intense light.

B. It is an energy-transfer molecule.
All organisms have ways to produce ATP. Which of the following statements describes why ATP is a critical compound for all cells?
A. It causes mitosis to begin.
B. It is an energy-transfer molecule.
C. It is a major component of cell membranes.
D. It carries information from DNA to the ribosomes.
D. Viruses lack the cellular machinery needed to make copies of their genetic material.
Which of the following statements explains why viruses are able to reproduce only inside host cells instead of being able to reproduce on their own?
A. Viruses cannot function at temperatures other than 98.6°F.
B. Viruses lack spindle fibers that correctly align chromosomes for division.
C. Viruses are too small to effectively make copies of themselves on their own.
D. Viruses lack the cellular machinery needed to make copies of their genetic material.
C. photosynthesis
Which of the following processes
releases primarily oxygen into the
atmosphere?

A. combustion
B. osmosis
C. photosynthesis
D. respiration

C. The virus used the host plant’s resources
and machinery to reproduce.
A tomato plant in a greenhouse was found
to be infected with tobacco mosaic virus.
A few weeks later, nearby plants were also
found to be infected with the virus.

Which of the following best describes
how the virus reproduced?

A. The virus made its own spores.
B. The virus produced seeds in the
tomatoes.
C. The virus used the host plant’s resources
and machinery to reproduce.
D. The virus immediately killed the
host plant and was free to reproduce.

C. dairy milk, because it has larger
amounts of sugar and fat
Which type of milk, per serving, will
theoretically yield a greater amount of
ATP in the human body, and what is
the reason for this?

A. dairy milk, because it contains
vitamin C
B. soymilk, because it contains no
cholesterol
C. dairy milk, because it has larger
amounts of sugar and fat
D. soymilk, because it has larger
amounts of vitamins A and D

C. Each resulting cell has one-half the number of chromosomes as the
parent cell.
When gametes are produced from a
parent cell during normal meiosis, which
of the following describes the number of
chromosomes in each resulting cell?

A. Each resulting cell has the same
number of chromosomes as the
parent cell.
B. Each resulting cell has twice the
number of chromosomes as the
parent cell.
C. Each resulting cell has one-half the number of chromosomes as the
parent cell.
D. Each resulting cell has one-fourth
the number of chromosomes as the
parent cell.

A. The respiration rate increases to
produce more ATP.
Which of the following most likely
happens in the cells of a person
running in the Boston Marathon?

A. The respiration rate increases to
produce more ATP.
B. The replication rate increases to
produce more DNA.
C. The photosynthesis rate increases
to produce more sugars.
D. The cell division rate increases to
produce more muscle fibers.

B.
Tree
Which of the following organisms is
eukaryotic, multicellular, and autotrophic?

A.
Squid
B.
Tree
C.
Cell thingy
D.
Mushroom

A. Cell X is a prokaryotic cell and cell Y is a eukaryotic cell.
The illustrations below represent two different cells.

Which of the following statements best identifies these two cells?

A. Cell X is a prokaryotic cell and cell Y is a eukaryotic cell.
B. Cell X is an archae cell and cell Y is a eubacterial cell.
C. Cell X is a red blood cell and cell Y is a muscle cell.
D. Cell X is a plant cell and cell Y is an animal cell.

A. A sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell
nucleus fuse.
Which of the following best describes the
formation of a zygote?

A. A sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell
nucleus fuse.
B. A cell’s DNA replication and mitosis
are accelerated.
C. A succession of cell divisions produces
a solid mass of cells.
D. A cell with 46 chromosomes divides to
form cells with 23 chromosomes each.

C. moving substances against a
concentration gradient
Which of the following functions does
active transport perform in a cell?

A. packaging proteins for export from
the cell
B. distributing enzymes throughout the
cytoplasm
C. moving substances against a
concentration gradient
D. equalizing the concentration of water
inside and outside the cell

B. to give the cell a rigid structure
Which of the following is a main
function of the cell wall?

A. to store carbohydrates for later use
B. to give the cell a rigid structure
C. to package proteins for export
D. to carry out photosynthesis

A. cellular respiration
Which process do the animals in the
food web use to convert energy from
food into ATP?

A. cellular respiration
B. osmosis
C. photosynthesis
D. transcription

B. king bolete
Which organism in the food web is
classified into kingdom Fungi?

A. Idaho fescue
B. king bolete
C. migratory grasshopper
D. yellow-bellied marmot

C. The lysosome digests molecules.
Which of the following statements
correctly matches a cell part with
its function?

A. The cell membrane packages lipids
for export.
B. The mitochondria perform
photosynthesis.
C. The lysosome digests molecules.
D. The nucleus produces energy.

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