Blue Eyes Technology Essay

Blue Eyes Technology Introduction you with messages of love or take up arms in a fit of rage over your insensitivity? Ever think your computer might one day pester here are to be believed, we could then soon see computers that actually know you hate them, or in turn appreciate them for a job well done. research project currently being implemented by the center’s user systems ergonomic research group (User). Blue Eyes seeks attentive computation by integrating perceptual abilities to computers wherein non-obtrusive sensing technology, such as video cameras and microphones, are used to identify and observe your actions.

If researchers at IBM’s Almaden Research Center Their initiative to make this happen: the Blue Eyes the camera would immediately “sense” your presence and automatically turn on room lights, the television, or radio while popping up your favorite Internet website on the display. how to sense or perceive user action. They are also being programmed to know how users feel–depressed, ecstatic, bored, amused, or anxious–and make a corresponding response. Computers can, on their own, play a funny Flash animation feature to entertain its “master” if it notices a sad look on his or her face. ith the computer “talking” to his user about the task at hand or simply acknowledging a command with a respectful, “yes, sir. ” information, such as where the user is looking, what he or she is saying or gesturing or how the subject’s emotions are evident with a grip on the pointing device. As you walk by the computer screen, for example, Part of this project is not only teaching computers Voice or sound capabilities can also be integrated, In these cases, the computer extracts key Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology hysical, emotional, or informational state, which can be used to increase productivity. This is done by performing expected actions or by providing expected information. to perceive, interpret, and integrate audio-visuals and sensoring information. Adding extraordinary perceptual abilities to computers would enable computers to work together with human beings as intimate partners. are attempting to add more capabilities to computers that will allow them to interact like humans, recognize human presents, talk, listen, or even guess their feelings. omputational machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings. It uses non-obtrusige sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and microphones to identify the users’ actions through the use of imparted sensory abilities. The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and even realize his physical or emotional states. the deliberate tools of science; scientists have expressed emotion, but no tools could sense and respond to their affective information.

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This paper highlights research aimed at giving computers the ability to comfortably sense, recognize and respond to the human communication of emotion, especially affective states such as frustration, confusion, interest, distress, anger and joy. Two main themes of sensing—self–report and concurrent expression—are described, together with examples of systems that give users new ways to communicate emotions to computers and, through computers, to other people. In addition to building systems that try to elicit and detect frustration, system has been developed that responds to user frustration in a way that appears to help alleviate

These cues are analyzed to determine the user’s Human cognition depends primarily on the ability Researchers The Blue Eyes technology aims at creating For a long time emotions have been kept out of Blue Eyes Technology it. This paper highlights applications of this research to interface design, wearable computing, entertainment and education and briefly presents some potential ethical concerns and how they might be addressed. emotions or to have the capability to emulate emotion. Some machines are useful as rigid tools, and it is fine to keep them that way.

However, there are situations in which human—computer interaction could be improved by having he computer adapt to the user, and in which communication about when, where, how and how important it is to adapt involves the use of emotional information. suggest that the interaction between human and machine is largely natural and social, indicating that factors important in human— human interaction are also important in human—computer interaction. In human—human interaction, it has been argued that skills of so—called “emotional intelligence” are more important than are traditional mathematical and verbal skills of intelligence.

These skills include the ability to recognize the emotions of another and to respond appropriately to these emotions. Whether or not these particular skills are more important than certain other skills will depend on the situation and goals of the used, but what is clear is that these skills are important in human—human interaction, and when they are missing, interaction is more likely to be perceived as frustrating and not very intelligent. common ones such as keyboards and mice, are limiting in capabilities.

Interfaces should not be limited merely to the screen, which forms the intermediary between the user and the results of the computer processes. Rather, the subsidiary devices should also be brought into the equation. In a sense, computer interfaces could be seen as a ‘peer’, or as one who responds activity to user input, as a reflection and a response lf the user’s feeling and emotions, to better understand the true intensions of the user. Not all computers need to “pay attention” to Findings of Reeves and Nass at Stanford University Current computer input devices, particularly the Available at www. mindstien. et Blue Eyes Technology representing the ‘emotions’ that a computer is believed to posses: automatic signals, facial expressions and behavioral manifestations. When observing human communication, studies have shown that apart from facial expressions, gestures, touch and other signs of the body language play a vita role in the communication of feelings and emotion. However one failing of the desktop PC is its inability to simulate the effect of touch. Humans are experts at interpreting facial expressions and tones of voice and making accurate interferences about others’ internal states from these clues.

Controversy rages over anthromorphism: should we leverage this expertise in the service of computer interface design, since attributing human characteristic to machines often means setting unrealistic and unfulfillable expectations about the machine’s capabilities? Show a human face; expect human capabilities that far outstrip the machines? Yet the fact remains that faces have been used effectively in media to represent a wide variety of internal states. And with careful design, we regard emotional expression via face and sound as a potentially effective means of communicating a wide array of information to computer users.

As system become more capable of emotional communication with users, we see systems needing more and more sophisticated emotionally— expressive capability. of an effective computing system because they provide information about the wearer’s physical state or behavior. They can gather data in a continuous way without having to interrupt the user. The emphasis here is on describing physiological sensors; however, there are many kinds of new sensors currently under development that might be useful in recognizing affective cues. (Tactile) Sensors to receive human felling as input have been progressively developing over the last few decades.

Since the human brain functions communicates its emotions as electrical signals, sensitive equipment and apparatus are able to pick up these weak signals. Here, we provide a concise list of the current technology available that could be further developed as input devices for obtaining user emotional information. There are three key aspects that is important in Sensors, tactile or otherwise, are an integral part Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology Types of Emotional Sensors Hand Emotion Mouse Emotional mouse implemented on a real mouse.

Emotion mouse developed at IBM Research Lab user information through touch is via a computer input device, the mouse. This then allows the user to relate the cardiac rhythm, the body temperature, electrical conductivity of the skin and other physiological attributes with the mood. This has led to the creation of the “Emotion Mouse”. The device can measure heart rate, temperature, galvanic skin response and minute bodily movements and matches them with six emotional states: happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. infrared detectors and temperature-sensitive chips.

These components, User researchers’ stress, will also be crafted into other commonly used items such as the office chair, the steering wheel, the keyboard and the phone handle. Integrating the system into the steering wheel, for instance, could allow an alert to be sounded when a driver becomes drowsy. One proposed, non—invasive method for gaining The mouse includes a set of sensors, including Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology Information Obtained From Emotion Mouse:1) Behavior a. Mouse movements b. Button click frequency c. Finger pressure when a user presses his/her button 2) Physiological information a.

Heart rate ( Electrocardiogram(ECG/EKG), Photoplethysmogram(PPG) ) b. Skin temperature (Thermester) c. Skin electricity (Galvanic skin response, GSR) d. Electromyographic activity (Electromyogram, MG) Prototype System configuration for emotional mouse Samples Obtained From The Emotional Mouse Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology Sentic Mouse directional pressure sensor for aiding in recognition of emotional valence (liking/attraction vs. disliking/avoidance). It is a modified computer mouse that includes a Eyes Expression Glasses Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology isualize the confusion and interest levels of the wearer. A wearable device which allows any viewer to is the attempt to learn the needs of the user just by following the interaction between the user and the computer in order to know what he/she is interested in at any given moment. For example, by remembering the type of websites that the user links to according to the mood and time of the day, the computer could search on related sites and suggest the results the user. Other recent developments in related technology Body Conductor’s Jacket conductor helps extend the conductor’s ability to express emotion and intentionality.

A jacket with an embedded sensor net worn by a Speech Turn—Styles Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology agent designed for affective communication, which adjust speaking style to the user. A personalizing conversational speech interface Miscellaneous/Overall Systems Affective Carpet cloth and conductive foam detects continuous pressure with high sensitivity and resolution, and re—expresses the applied pressure musically. (Instead of digitizing the applied pressure into music, we could probably use it as an input signal into a computer system). This is a deformable surface made of conductive Detecting Driver Stress ensors and used real—time signals to recognize driver stress as represented by road conditions, questionnaire responses and third— party observations. The subject wore five physiological sensors, an electrocardiogram (EKG) on the chest, an electromyogram (EMG) on the left shoulder, a chest cavity expansion respiration sensor (Resp. ) around the diaphragm and two skin conductivity sensors A car outfitted with cameras and physiological Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology (SC), one on his left hand and one on the left foot. The sensors were attached to a computer in the rear of the vehicle. uring the experiment. The upper left panel shows the driver facial expression, collected from a camera mounted on the steering column. The upper right panel shows the camera used for experimenter annotations where a “Stop” annotation is shown. The lower left panel shows road conditions and the lower right panel shows a visual trace of the physiological signals as they were being recorded. A sample frame from the quad split video collected Pong And Magic “Pong” that observes retinal activity and recognizes user presence and respond accordingly with, say, a human-like smile or computerbased action like initializing a desktop PC. ramatizes computers’ emerging awareness by sensing people’s presence and reacting to their comings and goings. “Pong” utilizes a small video camera to provide attention to its user. This camera is part of another prototype named Magic pointing, which allows the eyes to affect the movement of the cursor. This functionality can only allow the cursor to arrive at the point where the user gazes by having him or her touch the pointing device first. If the cursor were to move Almaden researchers also presented a robot called This “attentive” robot created by the User group Available at www. mindstien. net

Blue Eyes Technology where the eyes go, the operation would be unproductive and impractical, the researchers say, because this leaves the user exhausted and confused. Frustration Experiment Design “frustration response”, and to synchronize computer events with multiple channels of physiological data. A physiological experiment designed to elicit a Prototype Sensing System (Developed by MIT) had been developed for use on a UNIX based operating system. The system shown below includes a Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Sensor, a Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) sensor, a Respiration sensor and an Electromyogram (EGM).

This system was adopted for the commercial reasons: the sensors are available through a commercial manufacturer who has obtained FDA approval for use of these sensors on human subjects; the system is light weighted and portable and relatively robust to changes in user position; the system is entirely on the user which helps maintain the privacy of the wearer’s data. This is a “Prototype Physiological Sensing System” Working of Emotional Mouse mouse sense the physiological attributes, which are correlated to emotions using a correlation model.

The correlation model is derived from a calibration process in which a baseline attribute—to—emotion correlation is rendered based on statistical analysis of calibration signals generated by users having emotions that are measured or otherwise known at Sensors in the Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology calibration time. A vector in N dimensions, representative of subject user’s emotions, is output or subsequent subject users whose emotions are sought to be known, with the baseline being the reference in the N—dimensional space of the vector. o make an adaptive, smart computer system. This type of project could possibly include gesture recognization, etc. another non— invasive way to obtain information about a person is through touch. People use their computers to obtain, store and manipulate data. In order to start creating smart computers, the computer must start gaining information about the user. through touch is via a computer input device, the mouse. From the physiological data obtained from the user, an emotional state may be determined which would then be related to the task the user is currently doing on computer.

Over a period of time, a user model will be built in order to gain a sense of the user’s personality. The scope of the project is to have the computer adapt to the user in order to create a better working environment where the user is more productive. The first step towards realizing this goal is described here:- One goal of human computer interaction (HCI) is Our proposed method for gaining user information Emotions and Computing important to the computing community. There are two aspects of affective computing: giving the computer the ability to detect emotions and giving the computer the ability to express emotions.

Not only are emotions crucial for rational decision making as Picard describes, but emotion detection is an important step to an adaptive computer system. An adaptive, smart computer system has been driving our efforts to detect a person’s emotional state. into computing is for productivity for a computer user. A study y Dryer & Horoqitz, 1997 has shown that people with personalities Rosalind Picard (1997) describes why emotions are An important element of incorporating emotion Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology that are similar or complement each other collaborate well.

Dryer (1999) has shown that people view their computer as having a personality. For these reasons, it is important to develop computers, which can work well with its user. By matching a person’s emotional state and the context of the expressed emotion, over a period of time the person’s personality is being exhibited. Therefore, by giving the computer a longitudinal understanding of the emotional state of its user, the computer could adapt a working style which fits with its user’s personality. The result of this collaboration could increase productivity for the user. intrusively, is by video.

Cameras have been used to detect a person’s emotional state (Johnson, 1999). We have explored gaining information through touch. One obvious place to put sensors is on the mouse. Through observing normal computer usage (creating and editing documents and surfing the web), people spend approximately 1/3 of their total computer time touching their input device, we will explore the possibility of detecting emotion through touch. One way of gaining information from a user non— Theory see a correlation between a person’s emotional state and a person’s physiological measurements.

Selected works from Ekman and others on measuring facial behaviors describe Ekman’s Facial Action Coding System (Ekman and Rosenberg, 1997). One of his experiments involved participants attached to devices to record certain measurements including pulse, galvanic skin response (GSR), temperature, somatic movement and blood pressure. He then recorded the measurements as the participants were instructed to mimic facial expressions which corresponded to the six basic emotions. He defined the six basic emotions as anger, fear, sadness, disgust, joy, and surprise. hysiological measures could be used to distinguish various emotional states. Six participants were trained to exhibit the facial Based on Paul Ekman’s facial expression work, we From this work, Dryer (1993) determined how Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology expression of the six basic emotions. While each participant exhibited these expressions, the physiological changes associated with affect were assessed. The measures taken were GSR, heart rate, skin temperature, and general somatic activity (GSA). These data were then subject to two analyses.

For the first analysis, a multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure was used to determine the dimensionality of the data. This analysis suggested that the physiological similarities and dissimilarities of the six emotional states fit within a four dimensional model. For the second analysis, a discriminant function analysis was used to determine the mathematic functions that would distinguish the six emotional states. This analysis suggested that all four physiological variables made significant, non—redundant contributions to the functions that distinguish the six states.

Moreover, these analyses indicate that these four physiological measures are sufficient to determine reliably a person’s specific emotional state. measurements into a small, non—intrusive form, we will explore taking these measurements from the hand. The amount of conductivity of the skin is best taken from fingers. However, the other measures may not be as obvious or robust. We hypothesize that changes in the temperature of the finger are reliable for the production of emotion. We also hypothesize the GSA can be measured by change in movement in the computer mouse. Because of our need to incorporate these Experimental Design ypotheses. The four physiological readings measured were heart rate, temperature, GSR and somatic movement. The heart rate was measured through a commercially available chest strap sensor. The temperature was measured with a thermocouple attached to a digital multimeter (DMM). The GSR was also measured with a DMM. The somatic movement was measured by recording the computer mouse movements. An experiment was designed to test the above Method Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology female). The experiment was within subject design and order of presentation was counter—balanced across participants.

Six people participated in this study (3 male, 3 Procedure computer and hold the temperature and GSR sensors in their left hand & hold the mouse with their right hand and wore the chest sensors. The resting (baseline) measurements were recorded for five minutes and then the participant was instructed to act out one emotion for five minutes. The emotions consisted of anger, fear, sadness, disgust, joy, and surprise. The only instruction for acting out the emotion was to show the emotion in their facial expressions. Participants were asked to sit in front of the Emotion mouse used in experiment

Results four physiological assessments [GSA, GSR, pulse, and skin temperature] for each of the six emotions (anger, fear, sadness, disgust, joy, and surprise) across the five minute baseline and test sessions. GSA data was sampled 80 times per second, GSR and temperature were reported approximately 3—4 times per second and pulse was recorded as a beat was detected, approx. 1 time per second. First the mean score was calculated for each baseline and test sessions. To account for the individual variance in physiology, the difference between the baseline and test sessions was calculated.

Scores that differed by more than one and half standard deviations from the mean were treated as missing. By this criterion, The data for each subject consisted of scores for Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology twelve score were removed from the analysis. The remaining are shown in below Table1. physiology could discriminate among the six different emotions, the data were analyzed with a discriminant function analysis. The four physiological difference scores were the discriminated groups. The variables were entered into the equation simultaneously, and four canonical discriminate functions were calculated.

A Wilks’ Lambda test of these four functions was marginally statistically significant; for lambda = 192, chi-square (20) = 29. 748, p < . 075. The functions are shown in Table 2. unstandardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at group means are shown in Table 3. Function 1 is defined by sadness and fear a one end and anger and surprise at other end. Function 2 has fear and disgust at one end and sadness at other end. Function 3 has happiness at one end and surprise at the other. Function 4 has disgust and anger at one end and surprise at the other. we used them to predict the group membership for each set of physiological data.

As shown in Table 4, tw0—third of the cases were successfully classified. In order to determine whether our measures of The To determine the effectiveness of these functions, Table 1: Difference Scores. Anger GSA Mean -0. 66 Std. Devia. 1. 87 GSR Mean -41209 Std. Devia. 63934 Pulse Mean 2. 56 Std. Devia. 1. 41 Temperature. Mean 1. 36 Std. Devia. 3. 75 Disgust -1. 15 1. 02 -53206 8949 2. 07 2. 73 1. 79 2. 66 Fear -2. 02 0. 23 -61160 47297 3. 28 2. 1 3. 76 3. 81 Happiness 0. 22 1. 6 -38999 46680 2. 4 2. 33 1. 79 3. 72 Sadness 0. 14 2. 44 586309 4. 83 2. 91 2. 89 4. 99 Surprise -1. 28 1. 16 -41242 24824 2. 4 3. 18 3. 26 0. 9 Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology Table 2: Standardized Discriminant Function Coefficient. Functions GSA GSR Pulse Temperature 1 0. 593 -0. 664 1. 006 1. 277 2 -0. 926 0. 957 0. 484 0. 405 3 0. 674 0. 35 0. 026 0. 423 4 0. 033 0. 583 0. 846 -0. 293 Table 3: Functions at Group Centroids. EMOTION Anger Fear Sadness Disgust Happiness Surprise 1 -1. 166 1. 36 2. 168 -0. 048 -0. 428 -1. 674 Function 2 -0. 052 1. 704 -0. 546 0. 34 -0. 184 -0. 111 3 -0. 108 -0. 046 -0. 096 0. 079 0. 269 -0. 247 4 0. 137 -0. 093 -0. 006 0. 184 -0. 075 -0. 189 Table 4: Classification Results

Predict Group Membership Sadness Disgust Happiness 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 EMOTION Anger Fear Sadness Disgust Happiness Surprise Anger 2 0 0 0 1 0 Fear 0 2 0 1 0 0 Surprise 2 0 1 1 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 Total 5 2 5 3 6 3 Conclusions of the Experiment Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology mouse’s work is fundamentally sound. The physiological measurements were correlated to emotions using a correlation model. The correlation model is derived from a calibration process in which a baseline attribute—to—emotion correlation is rendered based on the statistical analysis of calibration ignals generated by users having emotion that are measured or otherwise known at calibration time. using cumbersome multimeters, it will be better to use smaller and less intrusive units. The infrared pulse detector can be improved to place it inside the mouse. Also, a framework for the user modeling needs to be developed in order to correctly handle all of the information after it has been gathered. The results show the theory behind the Emotion Next step is to improve the hardware. Instead of BlueEyes –Human Operator Monitoring System (A project developed by Poznan University) Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology

Overall Information which is based on BlueEyes technology. This is a project, developed by Poznan University, BlueEyes system provides technical means for monitoring and recording human-operator’s physiological condition. The key features of the system are: visual attention monitoring (eye motility analysis) physiological oxygenation) operator’s position detection (standing, lying) wireless data acquisition using Bluetooth technology real-time user-defined alarm triggering physiological data, operator’s voice and overall view of the control room recording recorded data playback condition monitoring (pulse rate, blood nd a central analytical system. The mobile device is integrated with Bluetooth module providing wireless interface between the operator-worn sensors and the central unit. ID cards assigned to each of the operators and adequate user profiles on the central unit side provide necessary data personalization so that different people can use a single sensor device. BlueEyes system can be applied in every working environment requiring permanent operator’s attention: at power plant control rooms at captain bridges The system consists of a portable measuring unit • • Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology • at flight control centers professional drivers Introduction of the System causes of catastrophes and ecological disasters. The main reason is that the monitoring systems concern only the state of the processes whereas human contribution to the overall performance of the system is left unsupervised. Since the control instruments are automated to a large extent, a human – operator becomes a passive observer of the supervised system, which results in weariness and vigilance drop. Thus, he may not notice important changes of indications causing financial or ecological consequences and a threat to human life.

It therefore is crucial to assure that the operator’s conscious brain is involved in an active system supervising over the whole work time period. operator’s conscious brain involvement using eye motility analysis. Although there are capable sensors available on the market, a complex solution enabling transformation, analysis and reasoning based on measured signals still does not exist. In large control rooms, wiring the operator to the central system is a serious limitation of his mobility and disables his operation. Utilization of wireless technology becomes essential.

Human error is still one of the most frequent It is possible to measure indirectly the level of the BlueEyes – the system is intended to be the complex solution for monitoring and recording the operator’s conscious brain involvement as well as his physiological condition. This required designing a Personal Area Network linking all the operators and the supervising system. As the operator using his sight and hearing senses the state of the controlled system, the supervising system will look after his physiological condition. System Overview Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology

BlueEyes system provides technical means for monitoring and recording the operator’s basic physiological parameters. The most important parameter is saccadic activity (Saccades are rapid eye jumps to new locations within a visual environment assigned predominantly by the conscious attention process. ), which enables the system to monitor the status of the operator’s visual attention along with head acceleration, which accompanies large displacement of the visual axis (saccades larger than 15 degrees). BlueEyes system checks parameters like heart beat rate and blood oxygenation against abnormal (e. g. low level of blood oxygenation or a high pulse rate) or undesirable (e. g. a longer period of lowered visual attention) values and triggers userdefined alarms when necessary. BlueEyes system consists of a mobile measuring device and a central analytical system. The mobile device is integrated with Bluetooth module providing wireless interface between sensors worn by the operator and the central unit. ID cards assigned to each of the operators and adequate user profiles on the central unit side provide necessary data personalization so different people can use a single mobile device (called hereafter DAU – Data Acquisition Unit).

The overall system diagram is shown as below:Data Acquisition Unit Central System Unit 8051 family microcontroller Bluetooth device Bluetooth device Connection Manager Module Data Logger Module Database Physiological parameters sensor Voice interface Data Analysis Module Visualisation Module Figure 1. Overall system diagram to maintain Bluetooth connections, to get information from the sensor and sending it over the wireless connection, to deliver the alarm messages sent from the Central System Unit to the operator The tasks of the mobile Data Acquisition Unit are

Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology and handle personalized ID cards. Central System Unit maintains the other side of the Bluetooth connection, buffers incoming sensor data, performs on-line data analysis, records the conclusions for further exploration and provides visualization interface. The Hardware Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) Data Acquisition Unit is a mobile part of the BlueEyes system. Its main task is to fetch the physiological data from the sensor and to send it to the central system to be processed.

To accomplish the task the device must manage wireless Bluetooth connections (connection establishment, authentication and termination). Personal ID cards and PIN codes provide operator’s authorization. using a simple 5-key keyboard, a small LCD display and a beeper. When an exceptional situation is detected the device uses them to notify the operator. Communication with the operator is carried on Voice data is transferred using a small headset, interfaced to the DAU with standard mini-jack plugs. Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology hardware modules: The Data Acquisition Unit comprises several

Atmel 89C52 microcontroller – system core Bluetooth module (based on ROK101008) HD44780 – small LCD display 24C16 – I2C EEPROM (on a removable ID card) MC145483 – 13bit PCM codec Jazz Multisensor interface beeper and LED indicators 6 AA batteries and voltage level monitor Jazz Multisensor necessary physiological data JAZZ Multisensor is used. It supplies Raw digital data regarding eye position, the level of blood oxygenation, acceleration along horizontal and vertical axes and ambient light intensity. Eye movement is measured using direct infrared oculographic transducers.

The eye movement is sampled at 1 kHz, the other parameters at 250 Hz. The sensor sends approximately 5,2kB of data per second. To provide the Data Acquisition Unit with Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology Central System Unit Central System Unit hardware is the second peer of the wireless connection. The box contains a Bluetooth module (based on ROK101008) and a PCM codec for voice data transmission. parallel, serial and USB cable. The audio data is accessible through standard minijack sockets. The module is interfaced to a PC using a To program operator’s personal ID cards we eveloped a simple programming device. The programmer is interfaced to a PC using serial and PS/2 (power source) ports. Inside, there is Atmel 89C2051 microcontroller, which handles UART transmission and I2C EEPROM (ID card) programming. The Software Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology BlueEyes software’s main task is to look after working operators’ physiological condition. To assure instant reaction on the operators’ condition change the software performs real time buffering of the incoming data, real-time physiological data analysis and alarm triggering.

The functional modules: BlueEyes software comprises several SystemCore facilitates the data flow between other system modules (e. g. transfers raw data from the Connection Manager to data analyzers, processed data from the data analyzers to GUI controls, other data analyzers, data logger etc. ). multi-consumer thread safe queues. Any number of consumers can register to receive the data supplied by a producer. Every single consumer can register at any number of producers, receiving therefore different types of data. Naturally, every consumer may be a producer for other consumers.

This approach enables high system scalability – new data processing modules (i. e. filters, data The SystemCore fundamental are single-producer- Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology analyzers and loggers) can be easily added by simply registering as a consumer. Connection Manager is responsible for managing the wireless communication between the mobile Data Acquisition Units and the central system. The Connection Manager handles: • • • • • • communication with the CSU hardware searching for new devices in the covered range establishing Bluetooth connections connection authentication incoming ata buffering sending alerts DataAnalysis module performs the analysis of the raw sensor data in order to obtain information about the operator’s physiological condition. The separately running DataAnalysis module supervises each of the working operators. The module consists of a Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology number of smaller analyzers extracting different types of information. Each of the analyzers registers at the appropriate Operator Manager or another analyzer as a data consumer and, acting as a producer, provides the results of the analysis. The most important analyzers are: • • • accade detector – monitors eye movements in order to determine the level of operator’s visual attention pulse rate analyzer – uses blood oxygenation signal to compute operator’s pulse rate Custom analyzers – recognize other behaviors than those which are built-in the system. The new modules are created using C4. 5 decision tree induction algorithm. Visualization module provides a user interface for the supervisors. It enables them to watch each of the working operator’s physiological condition along with a preview of selected video source and related sound stream. All the incoming alarm messages are instantly signaled to the supervisor.

The Visualization module can be set in an off-line mode, where all the data is fetched from the database. Watching all the recorded physiological parameters, alarms, video and audio data the supervisor is able to reconstruct the course of the selected operator’s duty. Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology custom-built GUI controls: • The physiological data is presented using a set of a pie-chart used to present a percentage of time the operator was actively acquiring the visual information a VU-meter showing the present value of a parameter time series displaying a history of selected parameters’ values • Summary Blue Eyes system has been developed because of the need for a real-time monitoring system for a human operator. The approach is innovative since it helps supervise the operator not the process, as it is in presently available solutions. resulting from human errors, such as weariness, oversight, tiredness or temporal indisposition. It is possible still to improve the system. The use of a miniature CMOS camera integrated into the eye movement sensor will enable the system to calculate the point of gaze and observe what the operator is actually looking at.

Introducing voice recognition algorithm will facilitate the communication between the operator and the central system and simplify authorization process. control rooms, the system may well be applied to everyday life situations. Assuming the operator is a driver and the supervised process is car driving it is possible to build a simpler embedded online system, which will only monitor conscious brain involvement and warn when necessary. As in this case the logging module is redundant, and the Bluetooth technology is becoming more and more popular, the commercial implementation of such a system would be relatively inexpensive.

The system will help avoid potential threats Despite considering only the operators working in Future Ahead Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology of designing smarter devices. Following the movement of your eyes, the “gaze—tracking” technology uses MAGIC (Manual Acquisition with Gaze-Initiated Cursor) to control your mouse. With MAGIC, the cursor follows your eyes as you look around the screen. When your eyes spot on an object, you click the mouse to select it. the work? Researchers tried that and found that the hand is quicker than the eye, or at least more accurate, says Morris, the research center director.

Also, current versions of the gaze tracking technology only come within an inch or so of its target. At IBM’s lab researchers are tackling the lofty goal Why not free up your hand and let your eyes do all have to tell them what we want. When you lay your hand on the Emotion Mouse, it will measure how you are feeling and react accordingly. Almaden are studying emotion technology for use in automobiles, video games, remote controls and telephones. But it may be a decade before this type of technology is readily available.

BlueEyes uses non—obtrusive sensing technology, such as video cameras and microphones, to identify and observe a user’s actions and to extract key information, such as where the user is looking and what the user is saying verbally and gesturely. These cues are analyzed to determine the user’s physical, emotional or informational state, which in turn can be used to help make the user more productive by performing expected actions or by providing expected information. For example, a blue eyes enabled television would become active when the user makes eye contact, at which points the user could tell the television to “turn on CNN”.

The television would respond to the user’s request by changing the channel to CNN. If the television then sees the user frown and complain, it would explain that it didn’t understand the request and ask for clarification in which you could explain you meant CNN Headline News. One limitation of today’s input devices is that we Aside from pointing devices, researchers at Available at www. mindstien. net Blue Eyes Technology “In the near future, ordinary household devices such as televisions, refrigerators and ovens—will do their jobs when wee look at them and speak at them. BlueEyes technology can be implemented in computer training or education programs, enabling computers to observe students’ emotional state and just as any good instructor, adjust information delivery accordingly, in the future, ordinary household devices—will do their jobs when wee look at them and speak at them. Future applications of Blue Eyes technology are limitless — from designing cars and developing presentations, to interactive entertainment and advertising. Available at www. mindstien. net

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