Introduction: All day we are communicating – whether it is talking to people on the telephone or in person, talking dictation and transcribing business correspondence, liaising with colleagues and staff, writing letters, faxes, reports and e-mails. For attaining success in our practical life we must develop and enhance our communication skills. Meaning of Communication: Simply communication means sending and receiving a message.
But this definition does not give us the real meaning about what communication is. Broadly, for better understand communication can be defined as a process of giving, receiving or exchanging information, opinions or ideas by writing, speech or visual means, so that the message communicated is completely understood by the recipients. Different scholars defined communication in different ways. Some mentionable scholar’s definition is given below; Communication is a dynamic, ever-changing, unending process by which people transmit information and feelings to others”. (Barker) “Communication is the field of knowledge which deals with the systematic application of symbols to acquire common information regarding an object or event”. (Kelly) “Communication is the process of transmitting meanings, ideas, and understanding of a person or a group to another person or group”. Megginson) In the light of above definition we can define communication as a task of sending and receiving information, opinions, or ideas sometimes through verbal means (words spoken or written) and sometimes through non-verbal means (such as facial expression, gestures and voice qualities) or any combination of both verbal and non-verbal means so that the message communicated is received and understood by the recipients. Business Communication: Communication which deals with business activities is called business communication.
In a wider sense, business communication is the transmission and accurate imitation of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of accomplishing organizational goals. Some scholars have given the following definitions regarding business communication; “Business communication is the ingredient that makes organization possible. It is the vehicle through which the basic management functions are carried out’. (Lesikar&Pttit) “The exchange of ideas, news, and views in connection with the business among the related parties is called business communication”. W. H. Meaning) Therefore, business communication is the process of transmitting data, information, ideas, thoughts or opinions from one person to another person for attaining organizational objectives. Nature of communication: The term ‘communication’ stems from the Latin word “communis” which means common. However communication includes in addition to commonalty, the concepts of transmission, meaning and information. When all these features are combined, communication takes a precise shape in the form of transmission of commonly meaningful information.
This transmission involves a process of sending and receiving message. The process that communication involves is complicated because of its variety with the people, positions and situations. However it involves the following sequence of events: ideation, encoding, transmission through a channel. Communication is a dynamic process. Person engaged in communication often send and receive messages simultaneously. While you are receiving a message, you may at the same time be sending a new message to the original sender. To occur communication there must be three basic elements of communication.
These are transmitting information by a person, receiving information by another person and meaningfulness of the received information. So mere sending and receiving a message is not adequate to constitute communication. Scope of communication: Communication is so inevitable in our lives from birth to death that it would be impossible to manage human behaviors and attitudes without it. Communication is an ever present activity in our lives. The scope of communication may be varying with the nature and size of the organization. However a brief description is given below regarding the scope of communication:- . Business functioning: For the proper functioning of business works every employee involved with the organization must have information to do his/her job. And communication conveys this information. 2. Decision making: Every organization needs to take decision in the field of production, distribution and other related fields for achieving the target. And communication plays vital role in decision making by supplying required information. 3. Implementation of plan: For the implementation of the plan properly it is necessary to direct, coordinate and control the activities of the stuff.
And communication aids in these functions. 4. Industry: Communication supplies required information regarding the human resources and other resources essential for the production. 5. Distribution and marketing: To make the production effective, it must be to the use of the people. And communication through advertisement and salesmanship makes the people aware of the necessity of the goods. 6. Foreign trade: To deal with foreign trade; enquiring goods, insuring goods, making contract of foreign afreightment and so on are to be performed.
These are all subjects of communicatio 7. Domestic and foreign investment: Investors of both home and abroad are contacted and motivated through communication to invest their money in industry and commerce. 8. Others: Communication is also inevitable in the field of industrial relations, transporting, warehousing, banking, social responsibilities, and public relations Functions of Communication: The main theme of communication is the exchange of meaningful information between two or more persons.
Analysis of this definition indicates that communication performs several functions. These are summed up below; 1. Conveying message: The first and foremost function of communication is to convey a message to another person. 2. Furnishing data: Communication provides all necessary data for making the organizational plan and carries out orders and instructions for the implementation of the plan. 3. Regulating human behavior: Communication may be termed as the traffic light of an organization as it regulates human behavior to start work, to continue work and to stop work. 4.
Aiding decision making: For the proper functioning of organization management has to take many decisions and communication helps management in this regard by supplying relevant information. 5. Facilitating coordination: For the achievement of organizational goals coordination among the various activities of different departments is indispensable. And by exchanging ideas and information communication facilitates coordination. 6. Facilitating social contact: Communication plays a vital role in establishing a social contact. 7. Motivating: Communication influences others to accomplish goals in a work setting.
In this regard communication acts as a stimulus. 8. Controlling: Control clarifies duties, authorities and responsibilities of employees. Without adequate communication, the controlling function in an organization is not possible. 9. Publishing goods and services: Communication helps to sell more goods and thereby earn more profits by publicizing organization’s goods and services. 10. 11. Maintaining human relation with others: Internal communication is needed for efficient administration. But external communication is equally or more important for survival, growth and expansion of an organization.
Communication maintain good relation both internal parties and external parties. So, it is seen that each and every activity of business involves communication. Communication helps to perform internal and external activities of a business. Therefore it acts as a life line for a business. Objectives of business Communication: The objectives of business communication are wide and large. Information, order, persuasion, warning, motivation, advice and raising morale are activated through the means of communication. The objectives of communication are stated below: 1.
To exchange information: The prime objective of communication is to exchange information internally and externally i. e. to deal within the organization and outside the organization. 2. To achieve goal: The goal of the organization can be obtained through effective organizational communication. Every person tries to obtain such goal and therefore it requires effective communication. 3. To plan: Planning decides what is to be done in future. All the information and data which are required to make a plan for business can be obtained or gathered through communication. 4.
Enhancement of employee skill: skilled and efficient employees are considered assets to the organization. Enhancing employee’s skill is one of the important purposes of communication. 5. Formulation and execution plans: Communication facilitates formulation and execution of plans through providing necessary data. 6. Direction to the subordinates: For better job performance, subordinates require specific instructions and orders from their respective boss. Communication is directed to this end. 7. Facilitating joint efforts: Management alone is helpless to achieve its goals.
It requires cooperation of employees for the purpose. And communication facilitates joint effort between management and employees. 8. To facilitate direction and motivation: The boss gives direction or order to his subordinate. And managers need to motivate their employees to increase the concentration and productivity. Hence communication helps to facilitate direction and motivation. 9. To increase job satisfaction: Job satisfaction requires better job environment and better job environment is possible if there exists communication chain. Strong chain helps to overcome job related stress. 0. Maintenance of good labor relations: Good management labour relation is a prerequisite for achieving target results. By exchanging information between management and labor communication helps to maintain good labour relation. 11. To attract customers: To knock the door of potential customers with new product and service of an enterprise, there should exist an efficient communication. So better communication will cause more customers and more customers will cause more profit. 12. Publicity: Every organization tries to expand their market by defeating competitors.
Communication helps to attain this purpose by advertising. 13. Others: Besides these educating workers, changing future plan, obtaining overall development, managing human resources etc are also important objectives of communication. A communication is adapted to the needs and interests of the receiver in order to causes the receiver to react in a manner that accomplishes the purpose of the sender. Importance of Communication in Modern Business: Communication is extensively used in all stages of modern society. To be successful in today’s business world good communication is essential.
The importance of communication in business may be stated as follows; 1) Achievement of goal: For achieving target results combined and cooperative efforts of every employee of the organization is must. Communication makes this task possible through encouraging employee commitment to organizational goals. 2) Provision for data for decision making: It helps the manager to obtain data for decision making to assist in searching problem and to know what actions are needed. 3) Smooth and efficient functioning: Communication helps in all managerial functions such as planning, organizing, motivating, directing and controlling. ) Delegation of authority and responsibility: Communication helps in decentralization of authority and delegation of responsibility to right person. 5) Increase in managerial competence: It helps to improve managerial competence and efficiency. As we know managers use various techniques or tools to command or control over resources. 6) Minimization of cost and time: Efficient communication attempts to minimize time and cost in case of exchange of information. If any message is required to be communicated to thousands of people then we have to think about Newspaper, Television or Radio which are strong media for ommunication. 7) Promotion of employee efficiency: Employees can know details of their duties, responsibilities and good methods of job performance well in advance through communication. Thus Communication helps in improving employee’s efficiency. 8) Proving job satisfaction: Several research findings indicate that employee dissatisfaction has an adverse effect on job performance. Sound communication helps to remove employee’s dissatisfaction and provide employees with satisfaction of individual and social needs. 9) Market research: The modern business world is very complex and competitive.
In these environments, business organizations must be constantly well informed of the competitor’s latest position and strategy, customer’s attitude and tastes, market nature and magnitude etc. Communication can help management to conduct market research and thereafter to take appropriate steps. 10) Developing of mutual understanding and cooperation: For development of mutual understanding and cooperation among various persons or parties of the organization communication plays and immense role through interchange of feelings, thoughts etc. 11) Creation of successful leadership: Communication acts as the basis of leadership.
If a leader and his followers can avail themselves of the frequent communication opportunity for free discussion for the matters of their mutual interests; weakness; sympathies and loyalties to the leader will increase. 12) Elimination of ramous: If the communication system is non-existent or faulty, rumors, grapevine inaccuracies, suspicion and unrest will prevail among the employees. 13) Development of relations: A congenial work environment is highly desirable for proper functioning. Communication can facilitate this by developing labour relations, union relations and communal relations 4) Discharge social responsibilities: Side by side with the profit making motive, modern organizations are also discharging some social responsibilities. They provide society with qualitative goods and services; solve unemployment problems, participating in philanthropic activities etc. Rendering these services to society depends of good external communication. Thus we find that communication plays important roles in the discharge of different activities of business organization. It is as important to an organization as blood to a human body. Principles of communication:
In order to make business letter, memoranda, reports, representations and other forms of communication effective, some certain principles should be followed. The following principles are important for making communication effective; 1. Principles of clarity: The communication cycle begins with the generation of an idea in the mind of the transmitter. A great deal of clarity is needed at this stage. At the time of writing a message to anyone it should be keep in mind that the words used in the message is understandable and suitable for the receiver. 2.
Principles of simplicity: Communication is an art. So a communicator should have the quality to present messages to the receiver in a simple language. Unnecessary jargon should be avoided. 3. Principles of completeness: In business communication completeness of facts is absolutely important. Incomplete communication irritates the reader for it leaves him baffled. Communication must include all the relevant facts-size, color, catalogue number, quantity, mode of payment, mode of dispatch, the date by which you need the information etc. 4. Principles of conciseness: A reader time is valuable.
Don’t make him feel that he is wasting his time in going through your unnecessary lengthy letter; So keep your sentences concise. This means you say exactly what you need to say in a few words if possible. But this does not mean shortness in the literal sense. 5. Principles of courtesy: In business we must create friendliness with all those to whom we write. Friendliness is inseparable from courtesy. And courtesy demands a considerate and friendly behavior towards others. 6. Principles of consideration: Show reader centered attitude. Stress what the receiver wants to know. Also emphasize how the receiver will be benefited. . Principles of unity: Try to achieve unity in the sentence. Unity means oneness. This means all parts of a sentence should concern one thought. 8. Principles of mutual trust: Mutual trust between the parties involved in communication, is an important prerequisite for good communication. In the absence of mutual trust the real purpose of communication may not be achieved. Therefore communicating should be base d on the principles of mutual trust. 9. Use of informal communication: With the application of formal communication, informal communication should also be used simultaneously.
This is because informal communication acts as complement to the formal communication. 10. Principles of consistency: Messages sent at diffract times should be consistent with each other. Moreover, it must have consistency with the objectives and activities of the organization. The above principles will have charming effect on communication if they are observed rightly. Barriers to Communication: Communication is a way of exchanging message, information or emotions between sender and receiver. Any problem, interference or hindrances to the process of communication is defined as the barriers to communication.
Many problems are encountered in our business and personal lives result from miscommunication. Generally following barriers exists between sender and recipient or a message becoming distorted: 1. Non-verbal signals: Non-verbal signals, often referred to as body language can provide valuable feedback where verbal communication is concerned. Such signals include facial expressions, gestures, movement, eye contact and nodding head. 2. Language: Choice of words is vital to the effectiveness of any communication. Many words have different meanings. Our background knowledge and experience affect our understanding.
Foreign languages, dialects, regional accents and the use of technical/specialist language should always be considered. 3. Lack of concentration: Careful concentration is demanded if a communication is to be understood. Success at gaining attention may depend on the words used, the way communication is expressed, our interest in the speaker, our interest in the communication and various other factors. 4. Pre-judgment: What is understood is often conditioned by what we already know and by our background knowledge and experience. Often we hear what we want to hear, or what we think we have heard, instead of what has actually been said. . Relationships: The effectiveness of any communication may depend on our relationship with the person giving the message. If relationships between people are not good, communication may fail to be effective or may break down altogether. 6. Emotional responses: Communication cannot succeed if a person is highly emotional about the topic concerned. Problems may arise from insecurity, fear, anger etc. If emotions are high on the part of the sender or recipient, then it would be better to wait for a while before trying to put the message across. 7.
Others: Apart from the barriers to communication already discussed there are so many barriers to communication such as; complex organizational structure, lack of policies, wrong explanation, fear, cultural difference, facial expressions, individual differences, negotiation methods, noise etc. Overcoming barriers to communication: Against various barriers to communication following measures should be taken to overcome these barriers: 1. Efficient management system: Efficient communication system in an organization depends on the management efficiency. So management should be efficient enough to make its communication system up to date. . Selection of right media: The media for communication should be selected according to the organizational environment, size and importance of the message, position of receiver and other relevant aspects. Wrong selection of media will obviously cause miscommunication. 3. Feedback: For effective communication we must ensure feedback from receiver. Without feedback the communication process remains incomplete. 4. Idea about the receiver: Sender should have better ideas regarding the thought, feeling, and opinion of receiver of the message. Such ideas will help the sender to make a fruitful communication. 5.
Attentive listening: To make effective communication, both sender and receiver should be attentive listener from their respective position. 6. Use of simple and meaningful words: Communication must avoid vague words and use simple words which are meaningful in the mind of receiver. 7. Informal relations: Before making any formal communication, informal relation can play a vital role to make communication effective. 8. Consistency between word and work: If the work is according to word then communication becomes effective and fruitful. 9. Communication audit: Communication audit acts as a fruitful method to improve communication.
It examines the network, activities, process and principles of communication and therefore recommends for improvement. Above measures would play a good lesson to overcome communications barriers. Meaning of Social Communication: Communication occurred in a social setting is called social communication. Human first learn to communicate usually with parents and relations who are social beings. From the beginning of our lives till death we spend much of our time in social communication. At every step of our lives whether as child, adolescent, young, adult, old, parent, relation or friend we communicate socially with those around us.
Social communication is usually informal. Difference between Social and Business Communication: The following difference may be identified between social and business communication; |Points of difference |Social communication |Business communication | |Definition |Communication occurred in a social setting is called social|Communication takes place in a business world for | | |communication. organizing and administrating business is called business | | | |communication. | |Nature |Social communication is relaxed, informal and often |Business communication is more formal and organized. | | |friendly. | | |Scope |As social communication takes place in a society so its |Business communication is occurred in a business world, so | | |scope is very wide. |its scope is narrower than social communication. |Beginning |It starts from the very beginning of our lives. |It takes place from a certain age of our lives. | |Purpose |It is usually concerned with pleasantries. |Its main purpose is getting things done by the receiver. | |Content |Social communication is full of personal news and is |Business communication only contains the news related to | | |informal in language and styles. |business. | |Rigidity |Social communication follows no rigid structure. |Business communication follows a planned layout rigidly. So, from above difference we may conclude by saying that social communication means the communication which we always use to express our opinion, happiness, distress, thought etc. and business communication means that communication which is done for the business activities. Communication process/cycle: Communication process is an aggregate of many steps or operations involved in the transmission of a message. In other words, the total number of activities performed one after another in the exchange of a message between two or more person is called a communication process.
Different experts define communication process as follows: “Communication process is a system that involves an interrelated, interdependent group of elements working together as a whole to achieve a desired outcome or goal (Barker) “Communication process is the cyclical interaction of sender, encoding, message, channel, receiver, decoding, feedback and noise”. (David K. Barlo) So, we can conclude that a communication process is a cyclical or sequential system of ideation, encoding, and transmitting, receiving, decoding, understanding and finally proving feedback. Steps in communication process
Communication process consists of six distinct but interrelated stages. Every stage is equally important for effective communication. The steps that construct communication cycle are stated below: 1. Conceive the message: The first step in communication process is to frame and develop an idea in the communicators mind. This idea is developed in one’s mind as a result of an internal impulse of external stimulus of some kind or both. 2. Encode the message: This stage involves putting the idea or information into an appropriate form suitable to the sender, the recipient and the aim.
Think before reaching for your phone of putting fingers to keyboard. Decide first what specific outcomes you want from the communication. This will help you choose whether words will suffice, whether a printed record is necessary and whether graphics are appropriate. It will also help you chose appropriate language and tone. 3. Select appropriate channel: This stage is where the message is actually sent and the information is transferred. The technological revolution has brought about a wide range of telecommunication methods.
You must consider all aspects; speed, cost, quick receipt, printed record, confidentiality etc and make an intelligent decision before sending your message. Time and money can be wasted if the wrong medial is chosen. 4. Decode the message: Because so many messages arrive in offices today, it is important to ensure that they are routed promptly and given the attention they deserve. TO achieve success at this stage it is also important to take the trouble to ensure that the recipient will understand the language and vocabulary. 5. Interpret the message: Very often it is necessary to read between the lines.
It is always important to consider carefully the tone used in your communication so that the correct message is received. [pic] 6. Feedback: The communication process cannot be successful without appropriate feedback. In oral communication this is often immediate, in meetings the audience may nod or smile to show understanding and agreement. But with written messages courtesy and discipline are important to acknowledge receipt of messages until a full and appropriate response can be given. Every step of communication stated above is important for communication.
Absence of any one step of these turns the communication into vain. Essential Qualities of Communication: An effective communication helps the business entity to achieve its goal. But to ensure such some conditions are to be fulfilled which are: 1. Thought: Efficient communication is created through appropriate thought. Now day’s scientific and constructive thoughts are considered to be essential elements of ideal communication. 2. Planning: Planning means what is to be done in future. So communicator must plan about topic, presentation system, time, place and others… 3.
A definite purpose: Each communication must bear a definite purpose to be effective. 4. Timeliness: A stitch in time saves nine is a common proverb in English. So communication must happen in time. 5. Conciseness: Communication should consider the relevant facts to create a meaningful picture in the mind of related parties 6. Completeness: Communication should not be partial. It must be in details covering all related aspects. 7. Correctness: Mistake in words sentences or punctuation may create confusion in the mind of sender as well as receiver. So related parties to communication should be conscious regarding correctness. . Clarity: Communicator must be straight forward with the message he wants to send to the receiver. Lack of clarity may cause misconception. 9. Persuasiveness: Persuasiveness in business is considered to be prime quality. So communication must persuade the receiver to fulfill the desired objective. 10. Feedback system: Good communication requires response from the receiver of the communication. This response is known as feedback which completes the process of communication. 11. Mutual interest: Communication should occur in such a way that both sender and receiver find their own interest.
Such mutual interest should be given importance to make communication effective. 12. Simplicity: The message should be given in simple words so that the receiver can understand properly about the intention of the sender. Use of complex or vague words will make fruitless communication. 13. Selection of media: According to nature and importance of communication, communicator should select the right channel to communicate his message or information. 14. Relationship between the sender and the receiver: During communication, the relationship between the sender and the receiver should be considered.
If communication is made considering such relationship then communication would be a fruitful one. 15. Creation of appropriate environment: Effective communication requires creation of appropriate environment, otherwise communication would be worthless. 16. Free from hypocrisy: There should be consistence between the word and work of the communicator. Lack of such consistency will represent the sender to be a hypocrite. 17. Others: Effective communication also needs voice control, good listening, maintenance of goodwill, consultation etc.
In fine we can say that communication must be effective to achieve the goals of the enterprise. So the above mentioned factors should strictly be followed in communication. How communication is Related to Management: Communication is the essence of organization. Organizational activities depend on communication. It is one of the most important facilitator of managerial activities. How management is related to communication can be easily understood from the following aspects; Management: Management means planning, organizing, directing, motivating, and controlling.
To do such functions managers must maintain active and effective communication. I. Planning: To make plan managers must collect various information, exchange words, consult with others and take decision. All these activities require communication. II. Organizing: Organizing land, labour, capital and other resources is very important for achieving targets. And for this communication is essential. III. Directing: To execute the plan subordinates need to be directed by manager. And through communication managers give direction, advice, necessary information to subordinates. IV.
Controlling: Whether activities are functioning properly or not is required to be checked regularly and therefore communication is a pre-requisite here to collect information. Duties of executives: Managers are concerned to inform subordinates with various information, explain plan and policies taken by the respective department, giving order for work and idea for how to work, collecting information from internal as well as external sources, giving advices as required by the subordinates, motivating subordinates to work efficiently, continuous connection with the top level management etc.
And for the performance of these activities communication is essential for the manager. From the above discussion it is clear that all managerial functions as well as the function of an executive cannot be possible if there is no communication. So management and communication is interrelated. Chapter No: 02 CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION Communication is an inevitable part of our life. We are born with communication, live with communication and die with communication. It is a process of sending and receiving messages. It is concerned with all ways of sending messages through speaking, writing, drawing, gesturing and so on.
So, we can say that communication is the process of transmitting meanings, ideas and understanding of a person or a group to another person or group. Finally, it can be said that communication is pervasive in our life. Again good communication is very important to every part of business. So, business needs good communicators but most people do not communicate well. Who will improve their communication ability they will improve their chances for success. To improve communication ability a person need to know about communication methods, Medias and channels.
By knowing the advantages and disadvantages of those Medias, it is easy to choose the best media for the best communication. CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION A communication channel is one of the most important elements in the communication process. A channel of communication may be defined as any means or way used for transmitting messages from the source to the destination. Without any channel, no communication can take place. Dunham defines as, “A channel of communication is the physical medium for”transmitting of a messages. According to Barker, “Communication channels are the means by Which messages are communicated? Communication channels can be divided into two- 1) Human and 2) Mechanical. Human channels Utilize the natural senses and therefore including transmission devices like speech, sight and body movement. On the other side, mechanical channels assist in the transmission of messages beyond the capability of human body and can involve a wide range of devices such as letters, newspapers, and telephone, television and computer networks. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEDIUM AND CHANNEL Some authors used the word ‘medium’ and ‘channel’ to mean the same thing while some others made a minor distinction between the two terms.
These are described below- |Sl. No: |Subject |Medium |Channel | |(1) | |Communication medium is the method used to convey |Communication channel means by which messages are | | |Definition |messages to the intended receiver. |communicated. | |(2) | |Medium is used as the larger group of ways of |Channel is used as the means by which the messages| | |Use |communication. are conveyed | |(3) |Ways of expressing |Medium is the way of expressing thoughts and |Channel is that via, which can send the written or| | |Thoughts |intent of the communication. |oral messages. | |(4) | |Medium can be divided into three- |A channel can be internal mail service, public | | |Types |1/ Verbal |postal service, telephone system etc. | | |2/ Non-verbal and | | | | |3/ Electronic. | | TYPES OF COMMUNICATION MEDIA OR METHODS Media of communication mean methods or ways that are used in transmitting messages from sender to receiver. Media of communication mainly relates to the use of language in communication.
Based on the language used, communication media can broadly be categorized into three types. These are: 1) Verbal media, 2) Non-verbal media and 3) Electronic media These are also divided into various types. These are shown in the chart given next page: Figure: Methods/Types of Communication DIFINATION OF VERBAL COMMUNICALTION When communication is based on language, it is called verbal Communication. It is one of the important Methods of Business Communication. It may be writhen or oral communication. Some Popular definitions are given below.
Accordion to Bovey and others “Verbal Communication is the expression of information through language which is composed of words and grammars. According to Bartol and Martin defined “Verbal communication is the written or oral use of words to communicate “ In the opinion of I. M. P and othens, “verbal communication consists of sharing thoughts through the meaning of words”. At last, we can say that, verbal communication is the communication where information is exchanged through words. MEANING OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Actually Non verbal communication is the opposite of verbal communication. This means that communication involves neither written nor spoken words but uses symbols other than word or Language is known as non verbal communication. A series of symbols Such as facial expressions, hand gestures, Pictures etc are designed to communicate a message. Some specialist definition is given bellow. According to L. C Bovee and others defined that, “Non–verbal communication means our communication that involves expresses information without words through gesture and Behavior”
According to Lesikar and Pettit defined that, “Non- verbal communication means our communication that involves neither written non spoken words but occurs without the use of words” So, we can say that non –verbal communication is the way of communication where no written or oral word is used. Instead of it’s, various physical movements’ tasks, colors, signal etc are used to expirer’s feelings, attitudes or wishes. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL-COMMUNICATION Any communication takes either verbal or non-verbal. Although both of them are the methods of Communication, there are some distinctions between them. Points of different |Verbal |Non-verbal | |i) Definition |when information is exchanged through words, |When communication occurs using neither any | | |it is called verbal communication |spoken non any written word, it is termed as | | | |non-verbal communication. |ii) Types |verbal communication are two types, such |Non-verbal communication takes place through | | |written and oral |picture symbols, gestures etc. | |iii) uses of word |In this communication uses either written or |Non-verbal communication is a non-words | | |oral words. |communication | |iv) Difficulty in understanding People can easily understand verbal |Non-verbal communication is more difficult to | | |communication. |understand | |v) Variability in interpretation |Interpretation of verbal Massage may not vary |Interpretation of non-verbal communication may| | |significantly. |vary from Person to Person. | |vi) Structured |Verbal communication tends to be highly |Non-verbal communication is less structured. | | |structured. | |vii) consciousness |verbal communication usually occurs |This type of communication takes place more | | |consciously |often unconsciously. | ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION When Communication through electronic media like ( Fax, Telex, E-mail, Internet etc) is known as electronic communication. In modern time, People use widely electronic device for communication in business as well as in their social and Personal life such type of communication may be either written or oral.
In the opinion of L. c Bovee and others, “Electronic communication is the transmission of information using advanced techniques such as computer modem voice mail, electronic mail, teleconferencing and private television networks. ” From the above discussion, we can say that, Electronic communication is that type of communication where information is exchanged by means of various electronic devices. ADVENTAGES / IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION Electronic communication has brought about a revolutionary change in the field of communication. One cannot think of modern life and modern Business without electronic communication.
It has some advantages. Which are given below :- 1) The quickest means of communication: – The important advantage of electronic communication is quick transmission of information with the help of electronic media; one can transmit information to a distinct receiver just within a few Seconds. 2) Overcoming Space Barrier|:- Information can send very quickly to any Location in the world provided the location is within purview of communication networks. (3) Communication Large volume of information: – People can easily send Lange volume of information with the help of electronic device such as E-mail.
One can attach writings of hundred Pages easily. (4) Lowest communication cost: – Electronic communication is not only Saves time but also money. E-mail, Fax. Voicemail etc help to minimize cost than the traditional means of a Posting a letter. (5) Help to instant decision making:-with the help of electronic communication, managers can take instant or quick decision. With the click of computer, they can get available Business information at any time from any where in the world. (6) Easy Preservation of information:-Electronic device can store huge volume of information that can use in any time as a result manual file is decreasing day by day. 7) Wide coverage: – Through Electronic communication, one can send information to many receiver who are located in different places. Finally, we can say that, the benefits of electronic communication have no bounds. with the help of it, the world has turned into a single global village, in the other words, modern world is the gift of modern communication technologies. ORAL COMMUNICATION Meaning of oral communication:- The meaning of oral communication means exchanged messages orally. On other, when communication takes place orally. It is called oral communication.
No doubt, it is word communication. In writing in this system of communication massager are exchanged between a communication and a communicatee direct in through face to-face conversation or group discussion. It may also occur through telephone calls, radio. T. V etc. Oral communication is the most effective way to send feelings, opinions of a communicator. According to Bovee. Thill and Sehazman, “Oral communication is the expression of idea through the spoken words” L. C. Bovee told that, “Oral communication expresses idea through the spoken words”
So at last we can say that oral communication is nothing but exchange idea through the spoken words. CHANNELS OR METHODS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION Media or methods of oral communication may be classified in to two broad groups such as, a. Non-mechanical or non-electronic way /media of oral communication. and , b. Mechanical or electronic ways/media of oral communication. (A) Non- Mechanical media:- Various media of non-mechanical oral communication are discussed below:- (1) Conversation:-Face –to-face conversation is the most common methods of oral communication.
When some people informally exchange their opinions among them in any place and at any time, it is conversation. (2) Interview: Talking or discussions a predetermined subject between an interviewer and an interviewee is eagles an interview. (3) Group discussion: Through this system of communication, an aide is exchanged through the discussion of a group of people. It may also be termed a committee meeting. (4) Meeting: Meeting is the assembly of some people in a common place to discuss any matter. In meeting, participants discuss the selected matter and lastly take decision on consensus.
Meeting may be various types such as, board meeting, annual general meeting statutory meeting. (5)Conference: Conference is very commonly used media of oral communication. It is arranged to discuss any important issue with the interested people on that issue. There are various types of conferences like, press conference, workers conference, political conference and so an. (6) Dias speech: Now-a-days Business leaders arrange dais speech to inform any matter to the general people. (7) Party Program: Sometimes various types of parties are arranged to discuses opinion, exchanging greeting feelings, idea wishes and etc. uch as, tea party, launch party, dinner party, birthday party etc. (8) Lectures: Lecture is one of the effective media of oral communication. This method is used to communicate with the trainees and students. (9) Others: Others mean Advisory board, Training course, special prize giving ceremony and so on. ( B ) Mechanical or electronic media of oral communication: Various types of machines or technologies are used to exchange information in oral communication; ideas, feelings and opinions views between sender and receiver. Now below the discuses of widely used mechanical media of oral communication: . Telephone: Telephone is the most common and widely used mechanical media of oral communication. Now-a-day, without telephone we cannot think of conducting business information. In the past, fixed line telephone was used but in modern time cell phones are more commonly used. 2. Television: Television is also an important media of oral communication television is not also more effective media of oral communication in business but also in social life. 3. Radio: Radio is an important media of oral communication. Radio transmits important news for general people. 4.
Video-conference: Video-conference is the latest electronic technologies of oral communication. Video confirming is the exchange of message between individuals or groups of people who are geographically dispersed. In video-conference, the participater not only hears but also sees each other. It is a very expressive media of oral communication. PRINCIPLES/GUIDELINES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION To make oral communication successful, communications should follow some basic principles or guidelines or essentials. The principles to be followed in oral communication are as follows: ) Taking preparation: The communicator should take necessary preparation before delivering the speech. Here preparation means thinking, analyzing and planning the message to be delivered. 2) Preparing a draft of the speech: The communicator should make a draft copy of the speech. The make the speech attractive, the speaker can practice the draft copy at home. 3) Using simple words: In oral communication the speaker should use simple and familiar words. Because of simple and familiar words can easily attract the interest of the listeners. We should avoid confusion words. ) Clear pronunciation: To make the speech attractive and effective the speaker should have some skills. Oral communication depends on clear pronunciation. 5) Speaking slowly: Slow speaking is very effective for clear understanding if the speaker speaks very rapidly, the listeners may fail to follow him. The speaker should slow speaking for making the message understandable to the audience. 6) Control of voice: We know that oral communication means communicates others through spoken words. So voice is an important matter of oral communication. If the voice of the speaker not clear, than the message is not understandable for listeners. ) Attractive presentation: Attractive presentation is another important principle to make oral communication effective. A speaker should use very lucid language and sweet voice. So as to attract is the receiver’s attention easily. 8) People’s concentration: Most people lose concentration after listening for a few minutes Before passing on to the next one to make the audience attentive by making a joke or comic so of tin. 9) Strong personality: Strong personality is another principle of oral communication. The presenter can draw the attention of his audiences by strong personality.
Personality of the speaker depends on his courtesy, dresses, manner, and conversation style and so on. 10) Repeating key words: When the speaker speaks very rapidly and using less familiar words then the audiences may fail to understand the message clearly that time speaker should repeat the key words more than once. This helps the audiences to understand. 11) Courteous: Courtesy costs nothing but may present many things. So a speaker should be courteous while speaking with audiences. ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION OR IMPORTANCE OF ORAL COMMUNICATION Nowadays oral communication provides a number of advantages or merits to it users.
In Business, it is found that managers spend about 74 percent of their time in communication orally. In one survey 55 percent of executives sampled that their own written communication skills were poor so they prefer oral communication some of the major advantages of oral communication are described below: 1. Quick and Prompt transmission: Another primary advantage is that, oral communication is direct in nature. It ensures speedy and prompt transmission of message from the sender to the receiver. 2. Close contract: Oral communications are merits close contract between speaker and audiences.
There can effectively communicate with each to other. 3. Time saving: Oral communication transmits messages instantly. Where it needs rapid action, it is best to send a message orally. They transmit a message through a telephone call. 4. Saving cost: when oral communication is done within the organization by means of face-to-face conversation, it certainly saves money. That time, it does not require to pay telephone, E-mail bills and to buy paper, pen or other stationeries. 5. Motivation: Senior Officers and sub ordinate staff can sit face to face and exchange their views directly.
Such that they are motivates to their works. 6. Powerful means: Speech is considered to be more powerful means of persuasion and control. For this strength, most of the speaker prefers oral communication to written communication. 7. Quick feed back: Quick feed back is another important advantage of oral communication. The sender can get quick feed back and can provide further information to convey the message. 8. Friendly Relations: The informal nature of oral communication helps to promote friendly relations between communicator and communicate. 9.
Creating understanding: It is impossible to achieve organization goals without understanding among the managers of the organization. It is more powerful than written communication. 10. Avoiding formalities: Oral communication does not maintain excessive formalities as written communication. The parties can exchange their information, wishes at their convenient time and place. It helps in avoiding excessive formalities. 11. Communication with illiterate persons: Oral communication is the best method of communication with illiterate people. The illiterate people cannot read and write.
There fore, oral communication is only the way to exchange ideas, information, feeling, opinions etc. with them. 12. Special fields of use: Oral communication is only the best effective method of communication with groups at meeting, seminars and assemblies. DISADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION Through oral communication is the most widely used method of communication but it also suffers from certain drawbacks, which are described below; 1. No Record: In oral communication, messages are not preserved and hence they are no where to be found in the record book. Naturally, these messages cannot be referred back in the future. 2.
Leakage of secret information: At the time of communicating with others orally, the communicator may carelessly express secret information in front of other outside party. This brings unpleasant consequences for the business. 3. Limited use: Oral communication is found suitable when messages are not lengthy. But if messages are voluminous, they are not suitable for oral transmission because of the likelihood of some important messages being missed. 4. Lack of understanding: In oral communication there is every possibility that the spoken words are not clearly heard or understood, therefore there is a change of misunderstanding. . Expensive: To transmit messages at a distant place, costly mechanical devices like telephone, television etc. are to be used. On the other hand, if conferences and meetings are held, then also expenses are to be incurred on entertainment. 6. Late Decision: It takes time to reach decisions. At the beginning stage, sometime is liked in the discussion of some personal matters. Besides, some time is also wasted for irrelevant discussion. In this way decision making is delayed. 7. Confused speech: Sometimes a recover fail to understand the meaning of a message due to the stammering habit or indistinct pronunciation of the peaker. The purpose of communication becomes difficult to be achieved through such communication. 8. Time consuming: Sometimes oral communication becomes time consuming, especially in meeting and conferences where nothing comes out after long discussion. 9. Others: (I) Inaccuracy (ii) Distorted meaning (iii) No legal validity (iv) Problems in presentation (v) Emotion (vi) Less weight Under what circumstances oral communication is more effective: The nature of advantages emerging from oral communication makes it more effective (than written communication) in certain conditions.
Under the following circumstances, oral communication plays more effective role than written communication. 1. Immediate Response: For effective communication feed back is a must. If any response needs to be known immediately it can be done better through oral communication. 2. Maintaining secrecy: Oral communication is best suited when information is to be kept secret. Written communication leaks secrecy as the message passes from hand to hand. 3. Illiterate receivers: When the receivers are illiterate, written communication is meaningless to them. Oral communication is only the way to communicate with them. . Oral Explanation: If any instruction or method of doing a work needs elaborate discussion, oral communication will best serve the purpose. 5. Value of Time: If sufficient time’s not available to exchange a message, oral communication will be best suited to exchanges views between the communicator and communicate within a short span of time. 6. Avoiding Bureaucratic Complexities: Bureaucratic Complexity delays the communication. In order to avoid any delay caused by bureaucracy or red-tapes, oral communicator should be used instead of written communication. 7.
Direct Relations: Sometimes a communication wishes to contract directly with communicate. In that case, oral communication is more helpful. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Written communication is one kind of verbal communication. It means exchanging information in written words. Some popular definitions of written communication are given below: According to Bovee and others, “Written communication is the expression of ideas through words that are meant to be read. ” According to M. Omar Ali, “A message communicated in written form is known as written communication. ” Rajendra Pal and J. S.
Korla said, “Everything that has to be written and transmitted in the written form fall in the area of written communication. ” In final, it is said that the messages that are transmitted in written form are as the written communication. There have many types of written communication. This are- (1) Letter, (2) Memo (Memorandum), (3) Report, (4) Graphs/charts, (5) Staff newsletters, (6) E-mail , (7) Fax, (8) Form/Questionnaire, (9) Notice, (10) Minutes etc. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Characteristics of a good written communication are discussed below: ) Easy language: Easy language should be used in written communication . The sentences of written communication must be understandable to the reader. 2) Structure: Definite structure must be followed in drafting any written document. Every written form has its own structure. 3) Accurate and precise: A good written document must be accurate and precise. Written communication insists on greater accuracy and precision. 4) Direct speech: A Direct speech should be used in written communication. Indirect and passive sentences must be avoided. 5) Paragraph Design: A good written communication bears a paragraph design.
Paragraphing is also important to clear communication. 6) Error less: A good written document must be free from error in both grammar and language. 7) You –Attitude: There must be you attitude in written communication. The reader can be impressed for this. Personal and organizational images: A good written communication bears the personal image of the written it also increases the organizational image as a whole. MEDLAS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION The Medias of written communication can be classified as follows. ( A ) Medias of written communication for Management: 1) Special Management Bulletin: The bulletin which is issued for emergency atters related to management is called special management bulletin. This kind of bulletin must be published promptly. 2) Management News copy: The less important management issues are published in this news copy. Generally this news copy is published weekly. 3) Formal Management Report: Formal Management report is one the most important Medias of written communication for management. It emphasizes the upward communication. 4) Officers’ Notebook/Handbook Sometimes high officials are given handbook of the company in which rules. Procedures, principles, work facilities are stated. It acts as a guide of the officer. ) Publications: Some organizations publish special journals/ publications for the high level officer. It provides officers information about lost-reduces, safety system, decreases, of accident, improvement of quality etc. ( B ) Medias of written communication for Employees: 1. Bulletin for Employees: Bulletin is published to inform the employees of emergency and important matters within a very short time. Generally it is hanged on a notice board. 2. Newspaper: Newspaper is a wide used media to communicate with employees. Companies planning Policy, procedure objectives, problems are published in it to inform the employees.
Generally it is published weekly. 3. Publication of Monthly Paper: Some large companies publish it to inform everything to the employees. Company’s role and plan are also stated here. 4. Letters: Letter is one of the most important Medias of written communication for employees. Sometimes the higher authority sends letter to the employees without asking any response. 5. Employee’s Notebook: Sometimes the management supplies notebook to the employees in which speech of executives, history of the organization. Planning, policy, order to the work are stated. 6.
Reading Rack: Necessary books for the employees can be arranged in the shelf so that they can read and get knowledge. 7. Notice: Notice is an important media to communicate with employees. By which the employees are invited to attend a special meeting. 8. Internal Circular: It is one of the most important Medias of written communication. It is used for internal communication. When all the employees are informed at a time internal circular is used. 9. Daily Newspaper: Daily newspaper is used to warn the employees due to long absence from the organization. Sometime it is used as a precious notice before termination. 10.
Complain Book: A complain book can be kept in a definite place so that the employees can write their complaints in it. 11. Memo: Memo is a popular media of internal written communication. Memo is a short form of letter usually used to communicate with the employees of the same organization etc. 12. Other Medias: i) Salary Envelope ii) Annual Financial Reports/Statements iii) note Sheet iv) Question Box v) Essay Competition etc. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION There are some advantages of written communication. They are discussed below: 1) Easy to Preserve: The documents of written communication are easy to preserve.
Oral and Non-verbal communication cannot be preserve. If it is needed, important information can be collected from the preserved documents. 2) Easy presentation of complex matter: Written communication is the best way to represent any complex matter easily and attractively. 3) Easy to Verify: The information and messages that are preserved can be verified easily. If there arises any misunderstanding, any party can easily verify the information. 4) Prevention of wastage of time and money: written communication prevents the wastage of money and time. Without meeting with each other the communicator and communicate can exchange their views. ) Accurate Presentation: Through the documents of written communication top executive can present the information more accurately and clearly. As it is a legal document everybody takes much care to draft it. 6) Uses as reference: If it is needed, written communication can be used as future reference. 7) Delegation of authority: Written communication can help the authority to delegate the power and authority to the subordinate. It is quite impossible to delegate power without a written document. 8) Longevity: Written document can be preserved for a long time easily.
That is why; all the important issues of an organization should be black and white. 9) Effective communication: Written communication helps to make communication effective. It is more dependable and effective than those of other forms of communication. 10) Maintaining image: Written communication helps to maintain the images of both the person and the organization. It also protects the images of the company/organization. 11) Proper information: It is a proper and complete communication system. There is no opportunity to include any unnecessary information in a written document. 2) Less distortion possibility: In this communication system information is recorded permanently. So there is less possibility of distortion and alteration of the information. 13) No opportunity to misinterpret: there is any opportunity to misinterpret the information/messages of written communication. 14) Controlling tool: Written communication can help to control the organizational activity. The written document may be used as a tool of controlling. DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION The limitations and disadvantages of written communication are given below: ) Expensive: Written communication is comparatively expensive. For these communication paper pen, ink, type writer celestial machine, computer and a large number of employees are needed. 2) Time consuming: Written communication takes too to communicate with others. It is a time consuming media. It costs the valuable time of the both the writer and the reader. 3) Red-Taoism: Red-Taoism is one of the most disadvantages of written communication. It means to take time for approval of a project. 4) Useless for illiterate person: It messages receiver is illiterate, written communication is quite impossible.
This is the major disadvantage of written communication 5) Difficult to maintain secrecy: It is an unexpected media to keep business secrecy. Secrecy is not always possible to maintain through written communication because it needs to discuss everything in black and white. 6) Lack of flexibility: Lack of flexibility is one of the most important limitations of written communication because written document can not be changed easily. 7) Delay in response: It takes much time to get response from the message receiver; prompt response is not possible in case of written communication that is p