Business process management (BPM) Essay

Literature Review

2.1 Definitions

2.1.1 What is Business Process Management?

Business Process Management ( BPM ) was influenced by constructs and engineerings from concern disposal and computing machine scientific discipline. BPM had its root in process-oriented tendencies and was treated as a direction doctrine since mid 1990s ( James F. Chang, 2006 ; Mathias Weske, 2007 ) . Studies look intoing BPM had been carried out several direction rules and patterns were associated. Most of these constructs were indistinguishable to Business Process Reengineering ( BPR ) and Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) constructs.

In the book Business Process Management: Concepts, Languages, Architectures, Mathias Weske had quoted from Davenport, who defined concern procedure as:

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“ a set of logically related undertakings performed to accomplish a defined concern result for a peculiar client or market. ”


“ a specific ordination of work activities across clip and topographic point, with a beginning, an terminal, and clearly identified inputs and end products. ”

However, Mathias Weske ( 2007 ) had adopted definition as:

“ A concern procedure consists of a set of activities that are performed in coordination in an organisational and proficient environment. ”

These activities come together to do a concern end became accomplishable. Every individual concern procedure is performed by a individual company, but it may interact with concern procedures performed by other companies. ”

From the concern procedure definition, Mathias Weske ( 2007 ) had defined the construct of BPM as:

“ Business procedure direction includes constructs, methods, and techniques to back up the design, disposal, constellation, passage, and analysis of concern procedures. ”

The footing of BPM had expressed representation of concern procedure with their activities and executing restraints between them. When BPM defined, people could analysis, betterment and passage with BPM. In traditionally, concern procedure had manually executed as usual by cognition forces, ordinances of company, and installed processs. Presents, company had more extra benefits by apply Information Technology like Business Process Management System ( BPMS ) when organizing activities involved by concern procedure.

2.1.2 What is Business Process Management System ( BPMS ) ?

Harmonizing to definition of James F. Chang ( 2006 ) , BPMS is

“ a new category of package that allows organisations to invent process-centric information engineering solutions. Process-centric agencies BPMS solutions are able to incorporate people, systems, and informations ” .

BPM fills the spread between the wide-open, unstructured universe of coaction and the precise dealing processing of endeavor applications. It has become widely realized that of import endeavor processes routinely traverse the boundaries of endeavor applications. Procedures like order-to-cash or procure-to-pay may affect several endeavor applications such as taking orders in CRM, ERP making bills and purchase orders, and pull offing production and fulfillment in SCM.

BPM, particularly in combination with services that can travel informations in and out of endeavor applications and other information beginnings provide a manner to clear define, manage, and automate procedures that span endeavor applications. BPM besides allows procedures that bring in people and systems from outside the company to the defined procedure. In this manner, BPM supports processes that take topographic point across an drawn-out concern web.

The personalities of procedures presently automated by BPM are as follows:

  • They are more structured than the loose coaction based on electronic mail and other such mechanisms
  • They are more flexible than the transactional procedures in endeavor applications
  • They are wider in range than procedures in endeavor applications, traversing both application and company boundaries
  • Their flow is explicitly defined, managed, and automated

2.1.3 What enabling criterions and engineering support BPMS?

When measuring and following BPM engineering, two criterions are referenced over and over: BPMN and BPEL. To to the full understand what BPM engineering does, it is of import to understand the function of these and other criterions, which provide a common substructure for procedure mold and mechanization.

  • Business procedure patterning notation ( BPMN ) is a criterion for the ocular definition of concern procedures. Most of the modern tools for concern procedure patterning support BPMN or are based on it. BPMN defines the crude concepts that are used to stand for concern procedures, such as get downing points, stoping points, procedure stairss, determination points, and so on.
  • Business procedure executing linguistic communication ( BPEL ) is a criterion for showing the stairss required to put to death a concern procedure by raising a series of web services. BPEL is more like a scheduling linguistic communication for transporting out a concern procedure than a mold system for depicting the procedure flow.
  • Web services engineering criterions are critical to BPM because they enable web services to pass on with endeavor applications and other systems utilizing appropriate mechanisms for security, self-discovery, versioning, and other of import affairs.
  • Industry criterions for web services define specific sets of services that are used to automatize communicating between two companies in a peculiar industry. BPMS often makes usage of such web services when making systems that cross company boundaries and integrated spouse companies into a procedure.

2.1.4 What is Business Process Modelling?

Business procedure modeling is the art of depicting how work is done in a company at the appropriate degree to accomplish the coveted communicating. The typical ends of concern procedure modeling are to capture a procedure so that it can be better understood and improved or to depict a procedure in item and tie in it with engineering so that it can be automated.

A concern procedure theoretical account in general is merely a description of a concern procedure. Ocular concern theoretical accounts are description of the stairss that take topographic point during a procedure and often represent in flow charts such as the one shown in Figure 3, although other signifiers of theoretical accounts such as numerical equations or systematic processs are besides sometimes used.

2.2 Main maps of BPMS

Here is a list of the most common constituents and direction mechanisms that are involved in application assembly.

  • Web services. BPM needs SOA. The act of making feasible concern procedure theoretical accounts is the start of making new applications to assist automatize and back up concern procedures. To let each concern procedure measure to interact with the universe, web services are needed to make a bipartisan communicating with endeavor applications and to make out to other beginnings of information and functionality on the Web.
  • Business regulations. Process stairss can affect the application of sets of concern regulations that determine some kind of consequence, based on the inputs passed in and the regulations in consequence. Rules could be used to find the routing of a papers, the recognition mark of an person, or a suggestion for a merchandise to upsell.
  • User interfaces. When procedure stairss need to interact with people to roll up information or to specify a undertaking that must be performed manually, a user interface is needed. In this manner, a user interface is a constituent that is included in the set of parts that are assembled into a on the job application by the BPM procedure mechanization engineering. User interface constituents can be generated automatically, based on interactions implied by web services, concern regulations, or informations required by process stairss. User interface constituents can besides be created by users and developers utilizing a assortment of tools.
  • Modeling and orchestration tools. Modeling and orchestration tools are used at many different degrees of a BPMS. The centre of a BPMS is normally an environment for patterning used to specify concern procedure theoretical accounts or the orchestration of services. Modeling can be used to make services and user interfaces. Modeling besides can be used to specify the integrating and function of informations from one beginning to another.
  • Simulation tools. In order to understand the flow of work through a proposed concern procedure, simulation tools may be employed. Premises are made about the sum of inputs to each procedure and the sum of clip it takes to execute each procedure measure. In this manner bottlenecks or cardinal countries for optimisation can be found. These cardinal countries can be closely monitored to happen jobs early on in executions or to corroborate the cogency of premises.
  • Model and procedure depositories. When theoretical accounts are created, they must be stored in depositories, which allow them to be accessed and shared by big groups of people. In any big plan of BPM acceptance, some procedures are used over and over. These procedure constituents must be stored in a cardinal location and reused in other concern procedure theoretical accounts.
  • Web services depositories. To associate concern procedure stairss and user interfaces to the supplication of services, it is of import to be able to happen services, understand what they do, and place the information sent and retrieved through them. Web services repositories contain information about the interfaces and functionality of the services and the implicit in applications the services are connected to at runtime.
  • Integration tools. It is non uncommon for a concern procedure to necessitate two systems to work together in specific ways. Possibly a purchase order must be transferred from the CRM application to ERP. Frequently, the BPMS does non incorporate the capableness to execute such integrating and so other integrating tools must be used to make the needful functionality. The BPM tools so invoke a service that performs the integrating defined by the integrating tools. In this manner, specific integratings become constituents used by BPM engineering.
  • Centralized undertaking direction. One of the most of import passages in a concern procedure theoretical account occurs when a package application asks a individual to execute a undertaking. It is critical that the undertaking to be performed be adequately described and that the consequences of executing the undertaking be recorded. A individual user may be acquiring petitions to execute undertakings from many different concern procedure applications. Centralized undertaking direction constituents create a individual inbox into which all petitions from concern procedure applications are sent, which streamlines monitoring and put to deathing those undertakings.
  • Procedure and activity monitoring tools. Once an application has been created utilizing a BPMS, it is of import to supervise the concern procedure theoretical account during executing. By supervising the activity of specific stairss, it is possible to supervise non merely the technological activity of the system such as database reads and writes or web traffic, but besides the advancement of the concern procedure, that is, figure of purchase orders created or client service petitions handled. Systems created based on concern procedure theoretical accounts take a big measure toward accomplishing the promise of the field of concern activity monitoring, complex event processing, prognostic analytics, and simulations.

These chief maps would supply the footing for rating of BPMS platforms.

2.3 BPMS platforms rating

From the chief maps of BPMS, the writer has evaluated four platforms to back up the execution phase. These four platforms were Drools 5, jBPM 4.3, OSWorkflow 2.8, and ARIS. The critical rating model has been discussed in the chief maps of BPMS within this chapter. The rating model included:

  • Web services
  • Business regulations
  • User Interface Widgets
  • Modeling and Orchestration tools
  • Simulation tools
  • Model and procedure depositories
  • Web service depositories
  • Integration tools
  • Centralized undertaking direction
  • Procedure and activity proctor tools

The marker counsel has included at appendices. The counsel provided descriptions for each grade from 0 to 10.The probe of BPMS has marked these platforms base on the rating model and taging counsel so ploted to charts.

2.3.1 Drools 5 – Business Logic Integration Platform

Drools was a open-source concern regulation direction system ( BRMS ) with a forward chaining illation based regulations engine, more right known as a production regulation system, utilizing an enhanced execution of the Rete algorithm. Adapting Rete to an object-oriented interface allows for more natural look of concern regulations with respects to concern objects. Drools is written in Java, but able to run on Java and.NET. Drools has been supported by JBoss since 2005 and renamed to “ JBoss Rules ” .

Baloneies 5 have been released on May 2009. The chief ends of this release were presenting Complex Event Processing ( CEP ) engine ( in Fusion faculty ) and workflow capablenesss ( in Flow faculty ) . On the release of Drools 5, it has changed name from Business Rule Management System ( BRMS ) to Business Logic integrating Platform ( BLiP ) with faculties:

  1. Baloneies Guvnor ( BRMS/BPMS )
  2. Drools Expert ( govern engine )
  3. Drools Flow ( process/workflow )
  4. Drools Fusion ( event processing/temporal concluding )


The platforms had Drools Expert ; it was an first-class regulation engine, developed as the first-class faculty in head. The platform received 10 Markss for concern regulation map because it had long clip development and matured plenty for production environment.

Drools Guvnor combined with Drools circuit board on Eclipse were outstanding at BRMS and editor. The combination aid user easy draw ; manage theoretical accounts on both Web and desktop IDE ( integrated develop environment ) . It helped the platform received eight Markss for modeling tools, nine Markss for theoretical account depository, and eight Markss for centralized undertaking direction.


The certification of platform did non hold any reference about web service on whole platform. That meant the platform did non back up web service either BPEL criterion.

Harmonizing to the official user usher at Drools web site, the integrating ability with OpenBravo ERP and OSWorkflow were still under developing at clip this study conducted. The platform received one grade for integrating map.

2.3.2 jBPM 4.3

jBPM is a platform for feasible procedure linguistic communications runing from concern procedure direction ( BPM ) over work flow to service orchestration. jBPM supports three different procedure linguistic communications. Each one is targeted towards a specific map and environment.


jBPM builds all these procedure languages natively on top of a individual engineering: the Process Virtual Machine ( PVM ) . Even as the BPM industry converges towards new criterions, the investing in jBPM is protected ; the PVM foundation will stay stable.


The supporting of BPEL has gave jBPM a good Markss ( eight ) at web service map. Support BPEL has besides meant this platform good in integrating with bequest systems.

The ability of generate signifier for human interaction work flow was the good map that included in jBPM. This ability contributed seven Markss for user interface doodad map.

Modelling, depositories, and centralized undertaking direction were the advantages of jBPM. This platform developed some circuit board for Eclipse to make the Graphical Process Designer. This attack gave the power of Eclipse to concern procedure on both graphical modeling and debugging.


The probe shown the failing of jBPM was the lacking of simulation tools. Simulation tools helped procedure interior decorator in bottle-neck resolution. The simulation map of jBPM was under developing at clip of this study conducted.

2.3.3 OSWorkflow 2.8

OSWorkflow is a mature open-source Java work flow engine. It is chiefly aimed at the coder and non an terminal user or concern analyst. For the terminal user or concern analyst, it includes a user-friendly ocular work flow modeler designed merely for basic use.


The strength of OSWorkflow showed at modeling tools and


2.3.4 ARIS



2.3.5 Decision

2.4 Drumhead


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