Calculation Of Net Present Value Npv Accounting Essay

Executive Summary

Wonderland is a successful concatenation of eating house and they want to diversify the concern and diversifying is a manner to protect or turn the concern. This helps distributing the concern hazard and besides a manner of increasing the company ‘s gross revenues gross and/ or operating net income.

The intent of variegation is to let the company to come in lines of concern that are different from current operations. When the new venture is strategically related to the bing lines of concern, it is called homocentric variegation. Conglomerate variegation occurs when there is no common yarn of strategic tantrum or relationship between the new and old lines of concern ; the new and old concerns are unrelated which is the instance with Wonderland Confectionaries Inc.

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And there is option

Find new merchandises for bing clients

Find new clients for bing merchandises

Find new merchandises for new markets

This study includes a instance observation on Wonderland which is altering its industry from eating house to theme park. The subject park undertaking is an investing with multiple offers to multiple clients will assist the company a batch from hazard point of position but it can hold a annihilating consequence to your concern. This is because if your service and gross revenues volume go down or you increase the cost you have no other option to last in the market and on the other manus, if you have assortment of merchandises or clients it may non impact your overall concern because you have some other options with you either in instance of merchandise or clients. So you gross is acquiring generated in stable mode and you are still in to the concern.



Ms Anuradha Chouhan

Finance Manager,

Wonderland Confectionaries Inc.

Date: 16-09-2010


The Board of Directors,

Wonderland Confectionaries Inc.

Respected Management,

Capable: Report on the analysis of the investing of Wonderland Inc. into the subject park concern.

I have herewith attached the critically evaluated study on the investing assessment of Wonderland Inc. into the subject park concern. I have besides outlined the fiscal and non-financial issues that the direction should turn to. Further in this regard I have besides given a brief lineation of the usage of existent options in the undertaking assessment. Your feedback will be kindly appreciated.

Thanking You,

Yours dependably,

Anuradha Chouhan


In order to measure the investing determination of Wonderland Inc. into the subject park industry, it is foremost indispensable to cipher the NPV of the investing undertaking.

By and large, NPV can be calculated utilizing the expression

NPV = Cashflow * Discount factor

In order to cipher the NPV of the investing undertaking, we need the price reduction rate of the company if it would come in the subject park concern. The computation that price reduction rate to be used for the NPV computation can be done by utilizing the information of Alice Limited company which is the closest subject park rival if Wonderland would come in into the concern.

Calculation OF DISCOUNT Rate

To cipher price reduction rate for NPV computation of Wonderland to come in the subject park industry, the undermentioned stairss have to be performed utilizing the inside informations from the balance sheet of Alice Limited and the inside informations from market research performed by the company. ( See Appendix )

Measure 1: – Take proxy beta ( I?E ) = 1.50

Measure 2: – De-gearing:

Remove fiscal hazard by presuming Kd = 0, I?d = 0

To cipher I?A we use the expression

I?A = I?E* [ E/E+D ( 1-CT ) ] + I?d


I?A is plus beta

I?E is equity beta = 1.50

I?d is debt beta =0

Tocopherol is sum of equity = 79 % ( See Appendix )

D is the sum of debt= 21 % ( See Appendix )

CT is the corporation revenue enhancement = 35 %

Therefore I?A = 1.5* [ 0.79/0.79+0.21 ( 1-0.35 ) ]

I?A = 1.27

Measure 3: – Re-gearing: Introducing the capital construction of Wonderland to cipher its I?e

I’E = I?A [ E+D ( 1-CT ) ] / Tocopherol

E = 65 % ( given )

D = 35 % ( given )

I?E = 1.27 [ 0.65+0.35 ( 1-0.35 ) /0.65 ]

I?E = 1.71

Measure 4: – Substitute I?E in CAPM equation to happen KE

KE = releasing factor + I?E ( rm – releasing factor )


KE is the cost of equity

releasing factor is the hazard free rate = 3.5 %

rm is the market return rate on equity = 12 %

Therefore KE= 0.035 + 1.71 ( 0.12 – 0.035 )

KE = 18.03 %

Measure 5: – Calculation of price reduction rate ( Weighted mean cost of capital )

We know that

KE = 18.03 % and

KD = 8 %

WACC = KE * [ E / ( D+E ) ] + KD [ D ( 1-CT ) / ( D+E ) ]

= 18 * 0.65 / 1 + 8 ( 1-0.35 ) 0.35 / 1

= 11.7 + 1.82 = 13.52 %

Discount Rate ( WACC ) = 14 % about


The price reduction rate which will be used to cipher the NPV of the investing undertaking has been found to be 14 % about. The one-year hard currency flow of the company can be found out from the inside informations obtained from the market research performed by the company.

The undermentioned premises have been made to cipher the net present value: –

The subject park will be runing 365 twenty-four hours a twelvemonth.

The net current plus has a realizable value of ? 150 million.

The market research cost of ?400,000 is non relevant to measure the investing of Wonderland into subject park concern since it is a sunk cost that has already occurred to the concern whether the company takes up the undertaking or non.

The price reduction rate calculated above ( 13.52 % ) is approximated to 14 %

The following tabular array shows the NPV computation.

All the relevant values used in the following tabular array have been calculated and shown in item in the appendix subdivision.


Year 0

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Gross ( from admittance )





Food & A ; Drink ( 40 % part )





Gifts ( 45 % part )





Operation cost

( 17,000,000 )

( 22,000,000 )

( 27,000,000 )

( 32,000,000 )

( 37,000,000 )

Insurance cost

( 2,000,000 )

( 2,100,000 )

( 2,205,000 )

( 2,315,250 )

( 2,431,013 )

Labour cost

( 35,000,000 )

( 36,750,000 )

( 38,587,500 )

( 40,516,875 )

( 42,542,719 )







Operating Cash flow

( 49,200,000 )





Tax ( 35 % )

( 17,220,000 )

( 44,010,750 )

( 42,494,288 )

( 40,989,502 )

( 39,496,977 )

Capital allowances







( 250,000,000 )

( 250,000,000 )

Working capital

( 60,000,000 )

Year 0

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Net current plus


Annual Cash Flow

( 250,000,000 )

( 301,420,000 )





Discount factor ( 14 % )







Present Value

( 250,000,000 )

( 267,359,540 )






( 137,457,617 )

The NPV of the investing undertaking is calculated to be ( 137,457,617 )


Even though the company wants to diversify its concern activities and cut down the overall hazard associated with the concern, I would propose the direction non to set about the undertaking since it has a negative NPV value. It is possible for the cost to set about the undertaking if the ticket monetary values could be increased and besides find cheaper labor. The monetary values of nutrient and gifts could besides be increased in order to add to the gross. Further the company should besides see altering the insurance supplier since the cost of insurance is acquiring expensive over the old ages.


In order to be a successful, the company has to see both the fiscal and non-financial issues environing it. There are many differentA ways to measureA fiscal public presentation, but all steps should be taken in aggregation.A Line points such asA gross from operations, runing incomeA or hard currency flow from operationsA can be used, every bit good as entire unit gross revenues. Furthermore, the analyst or investor may wish toA expression deeper into fiscal statementsA and seek out border growing rates or any worsening debt.


Following fiscal issues has to be considered by the Wonderland in order to accomplish

a cost-efficient growing in the company.

Capital Budgeting: It is the procedure of planning and pull offing the company ‘s long term investing. The cost incurred by a company is of the greatest importance to a company. The company should ever hold an oculus on its outgos and grosss. Wonderland can pull off these issues by carefully measuring the countries in which it plans to put. It should besides maintain in head the long term worthiness of the investing. The company must besides measure the size, timing and hazard of the hereafter hard currency flow.

To this terminal, the company must take a undertaking which gives a good return on investing and earlier payback periods

Capital Structure: The most of import concern of a house is sing how it obtains the funding it need to back up the long term investings. The company needs to do a determination on the appropriate mix of equity and debt funding the house will utilize for its operation. Apart from that, attending should besides be given on how and where to raise the money.

For this intent the company has to turn to the disbursal associated with raising long term funding called the cost of capital. Choosing among loaners and among loan types should be should be done with extreme attention.

Working Capital Management: Working capital refers to the company ‘s short-run assets, such as stock list and its short term liabilities, such as debt to the providers. Pull offing the on the job capital is a company ‘s dad-to-day activity that ensures the company has sufficient resources to go on its operation and avoid dearly-won investings.

This can be managed by turn toing the undermentioned points:

Sum of stock list to be kept in manus

Selling on recognition to clients

Obtaining any needful short-time funding.


Non-financial issues of a company are of equal importance to a company are as fiscal issues. They are easier to understand and step. They are characterized by the followers.

There is a closer nexus to long-run organisational schemes.

Drivers of success in many industries are “ intangible assets ” such as rational capital and client trueness.

non-financial steps can be better indexs of future fiscal public presentation

The company demand to be cognizant of the undermentioned non-financial issues:

Selling Effectiveness

The company public presentation can be measured by detecting the tendencies in the market portion.

Entire figure of clients of a company indicates how good it is executing

By detecting the client contact hours per gross revenues individual, we can acquire a step of how good it has attracted it clients.


It measures the proportion of concern repeated

Gives a step of client turnover

Customer waiting clip can be observed to supply better service

Delivery clip should be every bit less as possible


High staff turnover indicates that a company is making good and meets the basic employee demands.

Training clip per employee can be measured

Day lost through absenteeism should be minimised

Number of ailments received indicates the whether a company is making good or non.


Number of suppliers- More the providers better is the image of the company.

Manufacturing lead times should be less in order to increase production

Output per individual shows the efficiency of the employees

Attachment to bringing day of the months should be met for the good will of the company


In world, depending on what really happens in future, there will ever be ways and options to modify a undertaking. These options are called as existent options because they involve existent assets. There are many of these options available. The manner a merchandise or service is priced, manufactured, advertised and produced can all be changed utilizing these options. Few of these existent options are discussed below:

Option to Expand:

This option is of importance peculiarly if we find a undertaking that has positive NPV. The company so needs to happen out if the undertaking can be expanded to acquire an even larger NPV because in general, the inactive analysis assumes that the graduated table of the undertaking is fixed.

For illustration: if the demand for a service or merchandise is truly higher than expected by the company, so we may see increasing the production. If this is non possible for any ground, the company can ever increase the monetary value thereby increasing the hard currency flow. So eventually the hard currency flow will be higher that the deliberate value because we make an premise that the undertaking is inactive and non expanded, i.e, we underestimate the NPV.

Option to Abandon:

More frequently than non, the option to abandon a undertaking is rather valuable. For illustration: If our undertaking on subject park concern does non even cover its ain disbursals, we might every bit good abandon the undertaking. In this instance, our discounted hard currency flow analysis implicitly assumes that we would maintain operating. In world if the gross revenues demand is highly below the company ‘s outlooks so we may be able to sell off some assets or set it to another usage. The services could perchance be improved and redesigned.

Option to Sell: In world, the company can be faced with a state of affairs where the house can non cover its ain cost, whereas another large participant in the industry wants to take over the undertaking. Under such fortunes, unlike the forsaking option, the company has an option to sell the undertaking at a peculiar monetary value to the company that wants to take over the undertaking. This manner the company can cover up for some of the losingss it has made on the undertaking alternatively of non acquiring anything on the sum it has invested, which is the instance with the forsaking option.

Option to wait: We ever consider the investing on a undertaking as a yes or no determination. There is besides a 3rd option in this respect. The undertaking can be postponed in hope of more favorable conditions. This is the option to wait

For illustration: Change in the price reduction rate in the hereafter giving a positive NPV thereby doing the undertaking executable to set about, which earlier gave a negative NPV. Equally long as there is some possible hereafter scenario under which a undertaking has a positive NPV, the option to wait is valuable.

The company has to see these options and issues in order to do the best determination sing the investing in to the subject park industry.


The summarized balance sheet of Alice Limited is as follows:


? million

Non-current plus ( cyberspace )


Current assets


Less current liabilities

( 570 )


Financed by:

?1 Ordinary Shares





Medium and long term debt



The market value of Equity ( E ) and Debt ( D ) for Alice Limited can be calculated from the Balance sheet above as follows:


Book Value of ? 1 Ordinary Shares = ? 500 million

Therefore entire figure of portions = ? 500 million / ? 1 = 500 million portion

The market rate of each portion is 400 pence

Therefore the Market Value of Equity = 500 million portion * ? 4

E = ? 2000 million


Book Value of Debt ( ? 100 bonds ) = ? 570 million

Therefore figure of bonds = ? 570 million / ? 100 = 57 million bonds

Market monetary value of bonds = ? 93

Therefor Market Value of Debt = ?93 * 57 million

Debt = ? 530,100,000

The per centum of Equity = 2000,000,000 / ( 2000,000,000+530,100,000 )

= 79 %

The per centum of Debt = 530,100,000 / ( 2000,000,000+530,100,000 )

= 21 %

Appropriate computation used in the NPV tabular array:

Gross computation

Expected visitant 20,000 per twenty-four hours

20,000 * 365 = 7,300,000 per twelvemonth.

Children 70 % of 7,300,000 = 5,110,000

Adult 30 % of 7,300,000= 2,190,000

The monetary value of admittance

Children ?15

Adult ?25

Hence entire gross per twelvemonth = [ ( 5,110,000 * 15 ) + ( 2,190,000 * 25 ) ]

= ? 131,400,000

Food & A ; Drinks:

Expected gross from nutrient & A ; imbibe ? 10/ caput

Entire gross =7,300,000 * 10

= ? 73,000,000

Contribution 40 % of 73,000,000 = ? 29,200,000

2nd twelvemonth = ? 29,200,000

Grosss rise by 5 % per twelvemonth compounded anually

3rd twelvemonth =? 30,660,000

4th twelvemonth =? 32,193,000

5th twelvemonth =? 33,802,650


Expected monetary value ? 7 per visitant

Entire gross 7,300,000 * 7= ? 51,100,000

Contribution 45 % of 51,100,000 = ? 22,995,000

2nd twelvemonth ? 22,995,000

Grosss rise by 5 % per twelvemonth compounded yearly

3rd twelvemonth ( 22,995,000*.05 ) + 22,995,000= ? 24,144,750

4th twelvemonth ? 25,351,988

5th twelvemonth ? 26,619,587

Insurance Cost:

1st twelvemonth ? 2,000,000

Additions by 5 % compounded yearly

2nd twelvemonth 2,000,000 + 5 % of 2,000,000 = ? 2,100,000

3rd twelvemonth ? 2,205,000

4th twelvemonth ? 2,315,250

5th twelvemonth ? 2,431,013

Labour Cost:

1st twelvemonth ? 35,000,000

Additions by 5 % per twelvemonth

2nd twelvemonth 35,000,000 + 5 % of 35,000,000

35,000,000 + 1750000

= ? 36,750,000

3rd twelvemonth = ? 38,587,500

4th twelvemonth = ? 40,516,875

5th twelvemonth = ? 42.542,719

Capital Allowance:

25 % per twelvemonth cut downing balance on ? 300,000,000 of investing

1st twelvemonth 25 % of 300,000,000 = ?75,000,000

2nd twelvemonth = 300,000,000 – 75,000,000 = 225,000,000

25 % of 225,000,000

= ? 56,250,000

3rd twelvemonth 225,000,000 – 56,250,000 = 168750000

25 % of 168,750,000 = ? 42,187,500

4th twelvemonth 168,750,000 – 42,187,500 = 126562500

25 % of 126,562,500

= ? 31,640,625

5th twelvemonth 126562500 – 31640625 = 94,921,875

25 % of 94921875

= ? 23,730,469


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