Capitalization and Punctualtion Essay

CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION The purpose of capital letters and punctuation marks is simply to make reading easier. Without them, reading would be a constant puzzle; and we are all much too busy to work out puzzles every time we read. Notice how confusing the following sentence is when it is written without capital letters and punctuation marks: caesar entered on his head his helmet on his feet his sandals in his hand his sword on his forehead a frown and sat down Is the following an improvement? Caesar entered – on his head, his helmet; on his feet, his sandals; in his hand, his sword; on his forehead, a frown – and sat down. Gunnar Horn CAPITALIZATION Through capital letters, it is easy to know the important parts of the sentence that need to be emphasized. To capitalize is to use a capital letter at the start of a word. Specifically, capitalization is used:| * in the first word of a sentence| | Everyone loves me. | *to indicate proper nouns| | Philippines, Marc, Sony| *for days of the week and months| | Friday, December| *in naming a direction| | North, South| *in the pronoun I | | I am happy. | *in the interjection O| | O Lord, hear us. | Capitalize the first and all the important words in a title.

These words are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and the first word of the title. PUNCTUATION When we are speaking, slight pauses indicate the beginnings and endings of sentences, and the turns of thoughts within the sentences themselves. When we are writing, punctuation marks take the place of the pauses. Punctuation marks are warning signals to the reader. They are important because they mark divisions of thought. Use a period: 1. After an abbreviation. 2. After an initial. 3. After a declarative sentence or an imperative sentence that does not exclaim. 4.

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In outlining, after a numeral or a letter that sets off a heading. Use a question mark: 1. After an interrogative sentence. 2. After a fact in which there is some doubt as to accuracy. Use an exclamation point: 1. After an exclamatory sentence. 2. After a strong interjection. Use a comma” 1. After the greeting in a friendly letter. 2. After the closing of a letter. 3. Between the name of the city or town and the name of the province. 4. Between the day of the month and the year, in a date. 5. After an introductory participial phrase. 6. After transitional expressions like moreover, yet, still. . After an introductory adverbial clause. 8. To set off an absolute phrase. 9. To set off a noun of direct address. 10. After yes and no at the beginning of a sentence when they do not express strong feeling. 11. To set off words and phrases used parenthetically. 12. With most appositives. 13. To set off a title following a proper name. 14. After a mild interjection. 15. After a surname when it precedes the first name. 16. Before a conjunction that separates the co-ordinate clauses of a compound sentence or a compound-complex sentence. 17. After namely and for example. 8. After a conjunctive adverb. 19. To separate words, phrases, or clauses in a series. 20. To separate two adjectives that modifies a noun with equal force. 21. To set off non-restrictive clauses. 22. To set off non-restrictive participial phrases. 23. To set off degrees after a name. 24. Before A, An, and The when they come after a title. 25. To separate a quotation from the rest of a sentence. 26. To avoid possible confusion. Use a semicolon: 1. Between independent clauses not joined by a conjunction. 2. Before words like namely and for example. 3.

Between independent clauses when one of the clauses contains one or more commas. 4. Between independent clauses that are joined by such conjunctive adverbs as however, moreover, nevertheless, hence, consequently, there, also, otherwise, accordingly. Use double quotation marks: 1. Around titles of single stories, booklets, poems, and songs. 2. Around nicknames and slang expressions in formal writing. 3. Around the exact words of a speaker. Use single quotation marks: 1. To enclose a quotation within a quotation. Use a colon: 1. After the salutation in a business letter. . To introduce a list. 3. To separate hours and minutes in writing time. 4. To introduce a long quotation or a formal statement. Use an apostrophe: 1. In a contraction. 2. In a possessive noun. Use a hyphen: 1. To divide words between syllables. 2. To separate parts of some compound words. Use a dash: 1. Between numbers in a page reference. 2. To show a break in continuity of thought. 3. To set off parenthetical elements that are so loosely connected with the rest of the sentence that they break the continuity. 4. To indicate speech that is faltering or broken.

Use parentheses: 1. To enclose dates, figures, and letters which are inserted in a sentence. 2. To enclose nonessential words and phrases inserted in a sentence. Use brackets: 1. To enclose explanatory words or phrases in quoted matter. Use ellipsis: 1. To indicate an omission from a quotation. Use slash: 1. To replace the word per. 2. To present an option Use ampersand: 1. Used in the names of companies or in trade names. 2. Used only in informal writing such as personal letters. Source: English for World Use, MSA Comprehensive English Handbook

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