Sugar forms an essential part of our diet.
|Carbohydrate Function||Energy Source &
|Carbon Numbers||Carbon 1 is immediately to the Right of Oxygen and counts round clockwise.|
|Carbohydrate Components||Carbon 6
|Difference between Glucose & Galactose||The position of the OH on the 4th Carbon is Down for Glucose and up for Galactose.|
|Alpha||OH positioned down on Carbon 1|
|Beta||OH positioned up on Carbon 1|
Glycogen (Animal Starch)
|Condensation Reaction||Simple Sugars joining together through dehydration.
H2O is lost/ Water is the product.
|Hydrolysis||The reverse of a Condensation Reaction.
H20 is used to split the molecules, often during digestion.
|Glycosidic Link||The bond/link formed between sugars when a Condensation Reaction takes place.|
|Disaccharide||Two Simple Sugars joined to form a more complex sugar|
|Polysaccharide||Many Simple Sugars joined to form a more complex sugar|
|Maltose||Glucose + Glucose.
Found in Plants – as Barley Seeds. Can be fermented to make Beer.
Found in animals as a product of digestion by amylase.
|Sucrose||Glucose + Fructose.
Can be found in Plants such as Sugar Cane/Sugar Beet. A result of photosynthesis.
|Lactose||Glucose + Galactose.
Found in Milk.
Source of energy to feed young. Supports growth.
|Starch||Alpha 1-4 & 1-6 Bonds.
Spiralled structure found in tubes/roots of plants.
Long term energy storage.
|Cellulose||Beta (Alternate/Flipped) 1-4 bonds.
Straight Glucose Chain makes up long fibres which overlap to create a strong sheet.
Found in the Cell Wall.
|Glycogen||Alpha Glucose – 1-4 &1-6 Bonds, additional branches & protein core.
Found in Liver & Muscle Tissue.
Short term energy store.
|Amylose||1-4 Bonds that create a spiralled shape.|
|Amylopectin||1-6 Bonds that create branched shapes.|
|Alpha 1-4 Glycosidic Bond||Specifically named Bond for Maltose. Glucose + Glucose.|
|Starch Chain||The way excess glucose is stored.|
|Fibre||The main structural component in plants.|
|Hexose||Sugars that contain 6 carbon Atoms|
|Chloroplast||Where glucose may be made.|
|Glucose||Can have an Alpha or Beta Version.
Substrate for Cell Respiration in ALL living things.
|Fructose||Very Sweet, Found in Fruit & Honey.
Different structure to Glucose & Galactose.
|Galactose||Found in Humans/Animals.
Necessary ingredient to make Lactose.
|Polymers||Polysaccharides are complex Polymers of simple sugars eg: Glucose.|
|Key Groups of Lipid||Sterols
|Sterol||Steroid Hormones including Testosterone and Oestrogen.
Very important Fat – Cholesterol.
|Triglyceride||Found in Body Fat.
3 x Fatty Acids + Glycerol
|Phospholipids||Modified form of Triglyceride.
Major components of Cell Membranes.
2 x Fatty Acids + Glycerol + Phosphate Head Group
|Waxes||Waterproof/Protective Layer on leaves.
Sebum produced by the skin.
|Components of Lipids||Carbon
|Cholesterol||Very Important Fat.
Many uses in the body. Made in the Liver and part of our diet.
Forms part of the Membrane Structure.
Vitamin D3 is made from it.
|Glycerol||Colourless oily liquid used extensively in creams and cosmetics.
Simple structure with 3 OH groups.(Joining point for Fatty Acids)
|Saturated Fatty Acid||Single Bonds, (Carbon-Carbon) Fatty Acids are packed tightly together giving a Solid Structure.
Higher Melting point (Fat).
|Mono-unsaturated Fatty Acid||One Double Bond (per hydrocarbon tail), (Carbon=Carbon) Fatty Acid has a kink in the tail so they can't pack tightly giving a slightly fluid Structure.
Slightly lower melting point.
Carbon, Oxygen & Hydrogen Group found at one end of a Fatty Acid.
|Carboxyl Group||Another name used for the Carboxylic Acid at the end of a Fatty Acid, attached to the Hydrocarbon Chain.|
|Hydrocarbon||Made up of only Carbon and Hydrogen.|
|HONC||Hydrogen 1 – Oxygen 2 – Nitrogen 3 – Carbon 4|
|Omega 3||Omega Carbon is the last Carbon. 3 Carbons from the Omega Carbon to the Carbon=Carbon double bond.|
|Omega 6||Omega Carbon is the last Carbon. 6 Carbons from the Omega Carbon to the Carbon=Carbon double bond|
|Hydrophobic||Carbon or Hydrogen generally make it 'Water Fearing'|
|Hydrophilic||Oxygen or Nitrogen generally means it's 'Water Loving'|
|Amphipathic||Means it is both Water Loving AND Water Hating.|
|Ester||The bond/link created when a Condensation Reaction takes place in Lipids.|
|Lipocytes||Where Triglycerides are stored until needed for use by the body.|
|Phosphate Head||A highly polar group that forms the head of a Phospholipid.|
|Phospholipid Bi-Layer||A double layer of Phospholipids, randomly Formed to protect their hydrophobic tails from the watery surrounds.
|Mixed Micelle||Cholesterol with Plant Sterols, More cholesterol excreted, less absorbed into the blood as the plant sterols compete with the Cholesterol to form micelles and effectively dilute the concentration of Cholesterol absorbed.|
|Cholesterol Micelle||Cholesterol without Plant Sterols, Low cholesterol excretion, Full cholesterol absorbed into bloodstream.|
|Polyunsaturated||Many Double Bonds in each hydrocarbon tail, (Carbon=Carbon=Carbon) Lots of kinks, more spaces between Fatty Acids, very Fluid Structure. Low Melting Point (Oil)|
|Methyl End||Opposite end of a Fatty Acid to the Carboxyl Group.|
|Skeletal Formulae||Zig Zag lines that show the Carbon Atoms in a Fatty Acid.|
|LDL||Takes cholesterol from the liver to the tissues and sometimes called 'bad cholesterol'
Connected with the development of arterial disease leading to strokes & heart attacks, may increase as a result of increased intake of saturated fats
|HDL||Move cholesterol from the tissues back to the liver and is sometimes called ‘good cholesterol'
Better to have a higher ratio of this type of Cholesterol.
|Protein||Forms a major part of any balanced diet.
Essential for Life.
Wide Range of Functions.
|Shape & Charge||Most important things about proteins.|
|Protein Shape||Key is the way they fold.
Must fold in a very specific way to make it work.
|Amino Acid||Building blocks for proteins.|
|Primary Structure||First stage of a protein has it's own unique sequence, order & length of amino acids. Determines the final Shape and therefore function of the Protein.|
|Polypeptide||An Amino Acid Chain.|
|Secondary Structure||Certain regions of the primary sequence fold into more complex shapes.|
|Alpha Helix||Coil shaped Amino Acids with strengthening bonds.|
|Beta Sheet||Pleated structure. Chains fold back on each other to form parallel lines.|
|Tertiary||Protein Structure in it's final functional shape.
Regions of Alpha Helix & Beta Sheet.
|Quarternary||Multiple proteins bind together to form larger, more complex proteins.|
|Hydrophobic Interactions||Influential in determining the precise and specific shape of each protein. Grouping of Amino Acids with same charge. Weakest Bond.|
|Globular||Common type of protein, sometimes round.
Enzymes & Haemoglobin.
|Fibrous||Long, Twisted Protein chains, offer strength & support.
Keratin – Hair. Collagen – Skin.
|Conjugated Proteins||Associate with Non Proteins for Function.|
|Protein Bonds||Hydrophobic Interactions
|Hydrogen Bonds||OH—O or OH—N
|Disulphide Bridges||S-S Strong Covalent Bonds|
|Ionic Bonds||NH3+ -O Positive & Negative Charges Interact. Strong Bonds|
|Peptide Bond||The Bond between Amino Acids to create a Dipeptide or Polypeptide. Amino End and Carboxyl End join to create this Bond.|
|Dipeptide||Amino Acid + Amino Acid + Condensation Reaction =|
|Tripeptide||Amino Acid + Amino Acid + Amino Acid + Condensation Reaction =|
|Amino Acid Functional Groups||COOH + R + NH2 with a central (Alpha) Carbon and Hydrogen.|
|COOH||Carboxyl Group Forumlae|
|NH2||Amino Group Formulae|
|R||Doesn't exist on the Periodic Table so can therefore mean anything when used in a Formulae.|
|Polarity||Can be Hydrophobic or Hydrophilic|
|Haemoglobin Structure||2 x Alpha Polypeptide Chains + 2 x Beta Polypeptide Chains, each with a Haemoglobin Group.
146 Amino Acids in each chain, just one wrong Amino Acid can cause serious illness eg Sickle Cell Anaemia
|Haemoglobin||Blood protein that carries oxygen around the body.|
|Collagen||Connective Tissue, Tough Inner Layer of Skin, Structural.
Found in Skin, Tissue, Tendons/Ligaments & Bone.
|Rubisco||Converts Carbon Dioxide into energy rich molecules eg Glucose (Photosynthesis) Found in plants.|
|Rhodopsin||Converts light into an electronic signal receptor for light, allows you to see in B&W. Found in the Eye/Retina.|
|DNA||Where you find Genes that carry the coded information for protein building.|
|Genetic Disease||Caused by incorrectly built proteins that cannot do their job effectively.|
|ATP||Glucose is the main Raw ingredient used by cells to generate energy in this form.|
|Spectrin||Found inside Erythrocytes that help support the Cell Membrane.|
|Enzymes||Biological Catalyst made from protein. Used in Making, Recycling and Breaking Up Molecules within the body.|
|Hormones||Sensitive to change/Stimulus & act as Messengers.|
|Ribosomes||Helps to manufacture new proteins by carrying out the condensation reaction many times per second to generate new protein chains.|
|Adipocyte||Lipocyte or other Fat Storage Cell|
|Catalyst||Speeds up a Chemical Reaction but is not used up in the Reaction|
|Substrate||Called a reactant in Chemistry. Can be changed by an enzyme to meet the needs of a cell.|
|Product||The result of enzyme action.|
|37 Degrees||Optimum Temperature for Enzymes to convert Substances.|
|Neutral PH||Optimum PH for Enzymes to convert Substances.|
|Active Site||An area of specific shape and charge that a substrate fits into for a reaction to take place. Where the substrate bonds or breaks.|
|Lock & Key||Highly Specific. Only one substrate fits.|
|Induced Fit||The active site moulds to fit a variety of substrates.|
|Enzyme-Substrate Complex||The meeting of an Enzyme and Substrate.|
|Transition State||The top of the Energy Pathway where reactants are broken down.|
|Activation Energy||The initial amount of energy required to get from a Reactant to the transition state.
Enzymes reduce the amount of this energy required by putting strain on the bonds making them easier to break.
|Enthalpy||Net energy change between a Reactant and it's product. During an enzyme reaction a Reactant loses more energy than it needed for the reaction.|
|Denatured||Protein loses its structure, is permanently disfigured and won't work.|
|Inhibitors||Affects enzyme activity.|
|Competitive Inhibition||Inhibitor is the same/similar shape and charge to the active site and competes with the substrate to stop the enzyme process.|
|Energy Pathway||The energy curve of a reaction between Atoms.|
|System||The site of a reaction.|
|Surroundings||Everything outside the site of a reaction.|
|Pepsin||An enzyme found in the stomach. The stomach produces acid which lowers the PH so enzymes in the Stomach should work best at a low PH.|
|Trypsin||An enzyme found in the small intestine. Which is slightly basic (alkaline) so enzymes here work best at PH 8.|
|Non Competitive Inhibition||Binds elsewhere on the Enzyme causing it to change shape and distort the active site so that the substrate cannot bind.|
|Cell Metabolism||Many potential Enzyme Pathways|
|Drugs/Medication||Chemicals that can mimic inhibitors to slow down Enzyme reactions.|
|Receptors||Can recognise and bind other molecules to a surface membrane.|