right000AKACarl Gustav Jung
Born:26-Jul-1875Birthplace:Kessewil, SwitzerlandDied:6-Jun-1961Location of death:Kssnacht, SwitzerlandCause of death:unspecifiedRemains:Buried, Protestant Church,Kssnacht, Switzerland
Gender:MaleRace or Ethnicity:WhiteSexual orientation:StraightOccupation:Psychiatrist
Nationality:SwitzerlandExecutive summary:Inventor of the collective unconscious
Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. He is best known for his theories of the Collective Unconscious, including the concept of archetypes, and the use of synchronicity in psychotherapy. Along withSigmund Freud, Jung pioneered modern theories of the relationships between the conscious and unconscious aspects of mind. But while Freud postulated a psychosexual explanation for human behavior, Jung perceived theprimarymotivating force to be spiritual in origin. According to Jung, it was from the soul that the complementary drives of differentiation and integration arose, fueling the processes of growth, development, and healing. Mental illness arose when these processes were thwarted.
He emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. Though not the first to analyze dreams, he has become perhaps the most well known pioneer in the field of dream analysis. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician, much of his life’s work was spent exploring other areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts.
Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern people rely too heavily on natural science and logical positivism and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms. He considered the process of individuation necessary for a person to become whole. This is a psychological process of integrating the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining conscious autonomy. Individuation was the central concept of analytical psychology.
Jungian ideas are not typically included in curriculum of most major universities’ psychology departments, but are occasionally explored in humanities departments.[dubious – discuss] Many pioneering psychological concepts were originally proposed by Jung.
Born:15-Jun-1902Birthplace:Frankfurt am Main, GermanyDied:12-May-1994Location of death:Harwich, MACause of death:unspecified
Gender:MaleReligion:JewishRace or Ethnicity:WhiteSexual orientation:StraightOccupation:Psychologist
Nationality:United StatesExecutive summary:Eight Stages of Childhood
Erik Erikson was an influential and pioneering psychologist, psychoanalyst, and author whose theory of the eight psychosocial stages of development profoundly shaped the field of child development..Although highly original, Erikson’s work shows heavy influences from the work of Sigmund and Anna Freud, as well as from the field of cultural anthropology.
He stayed in many ways true to the psychoanalytic assumptions grounded in Sigmund Freud, but there were differences as well. He accepted Freudian notions such as the ego and theOedipalcomplex and the development of the self through various stages. But rather than rely entirely on universal drives from within the psyche to explain cognitive development and personality, he integrated information from anthropology about the role played by society and culture. In short, children within each culture learn different values, different goals, and receive vastly different kinds of nurturing and guidance. These influences powerfully shape how the psyche of the child develops and influences how he/she will navigate the typical challenges presented by psychological and physical development.
But despite such differences from one society to the next, Erikson was able to elaborate a theory of development that was also universal.He perceived that there were eight distinct phases of development (in contrast toFreud’s five).
The stages were:
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Integrity vs. Despair.
Erikson’s psychosocial crisis stages(syntonic v dystonic)
Freudian psycho- sexual stages
life stage /relationships/issues
basic virtue and second named strength(potential positive outcomes from each crisis)
maladaptation /malignancy(potential negative outcome – one or the other – from unhelpful experience during each crisis)
1. Trust v Mistrust
infant /mother/feeding and being comforted, teething, sleeping
Hope and Drive
Sensory Distortion /Withdrawal
2. Autonomy v Shame ; Doubt
toddler /parents/bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking
Willpower and Self-Control
3. Initiative v Guilt
preschool /family/exploration and discovery, adventure and play
Purpose and Direction
4. Industry v Inferiority
schoolchild /school, teachers, friends,neighbourhood/achievement and accomplishment
Competence and Method
Narrow Virtuosity /Inertia
5. Identity v Role Confusion
adolescent /peers, groups, influences/resolving identity and direction, becoming a grown-up
Fidelity and Devotion
6. Intimacy v Isolation
young adult /lovers, friends, work connections/intimate relationships, work and social life
Love and Affiliation
mid-adult /children, community/’giving back’, helping, contributing
Care and Production
8. Integrity v Despair
late adult /society, the world, life/meaning and purpose, life achievements
Wisdom and Renunciation
To be negotiated successfully, the individual must find the balance of each value. That is he must, for example be able to feel a healthy degree of trust while maintaining enough “distrust” to avoid gullibility.
In addition, while Freud’s stages of development focused only on the period from birth to age five (as he believed personality was fully formed by that time), Erikson saw growth and development as something that stretched throughout the life cycle. According to Erikson there were various “crises” that developed naturally and inevitably at various points in the life cycle. Successful resolution of these crises would determine whether one later experienced relative happiness, or discontent and neurosis. In addition, each of the different phases — and the skills that came from resolving each successive crisis — built upon those that came before.
One value of this theory is that it illuminated why individuals who had been thwarted in the healthy resolution of early phases (such as in learning healthy levels of trust and autonomy in toddlerhood) had such a tough time of it with the crises that came inadulthood. More importantly, it did so in a way that provided answers for practical application. It raised new potential for therapists and their patients to identify key issues and skills that required addressing. But at the same time, it yielded a guide or yardstick that could be used to assess teaching and child rearing practices in terms of their ability to nurture and facilitate healthy emotional and cognitive development.