Case study Lily Owens Sample Essay

In order to accurately measure the chief character Lily Owens in “The Secret Life of Bees. ” the first measure is to garner information about her biological. psychological. and societal factors that make up her mind. Knowing that today’s Confederate America’s bio-psycho-social home ground is wholly different than in 1964. one can garner that it would merely do sense to take a expression at the major issues of the times from a relational facet with relation character growing. In a clip where a state household value seems to be the norm of society. the racial tenseness forges an overall racially charged subject of seeking love. In order to make full the losing nothingness created by unfairness and maltreatment in the character’s lives. one must seek the love. attention. and readying needed for a comfortable hereafter.

The supporter of the narrative is much like a bee ; Early on. Lily lives a really secret but complicated life in which she feels wholly abandoned. even populating with her male parent. She is a widowed 14 twelvemonth old Caucasic female who lives on a farm with her male parent in the to a great extent unintegrated province of South Carolina. Her scruples is affect enormously by the idea that she killed her female parent at four old ages old. The movie shows her chase in hunt for the existent truth about the inside informations sing the nonvoluntary manslaughter of her female parent. and whether or non she was genuinely loved by anyone. The film shows snapshots of the domestic force that T. Ray. Lily’s male parent abused his married woman and her female parent. Deborah ; the scene features shouting and shows the gun falling and Lily’s little manus making for so gun. followed by the fatal gunfire. Shortly after Deborah’s decease. it is discovered that the Father-Daughter couple hired a “Negro” ( Movie ) nanny ; this sets the environment of racial tenseness for the film.

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Lily’s nursemaid is named Rosaleen and has seemed to be the lone one lovingness for Lily as her male parent merely treats her with maltreatment. The lone beginning of love was coming from her nursemaid who ironically was traveling through her ain civil rights conflicts on a day-to-day footing. Even though America was doing stairss to unite the state as a whole. most Blacks in state of affairss like Rosaleen ne’er felt protected from the racialists who merely considered Torahs to be “just a piece of paper” ( The Secret Life of Bees ) . This impacts Lily enormously as she is acknowledging that universe can be a barbarous topographic point. and is merely a glance into the love that she has for Rosaleen. Lily was excited and happy to hear that Rosaleen was traveling
registry to vote for President Lyndon Baines Johnson. who was most frequently referred to by the populace as LBJ to separate him from Andrew Johnson. the Nation’s 17th president.

Lily and Rosaleen’s relationship is polar in finding what type of individual Lily is. because it shows that she has feelings. She and Lily portion a minute of love as she has prepared a birthday bar for Lily. Rosaleen sees Lily as a turning adult female and take her in town to purchase her a proper bandeau. A true trial of the character of Lily is her reactions to jobs when they present themselves. On their manner into town. they were approached and harassed by three white work forces. Lily was held down by 2 work forces and had to watch as Rosaleen was beaten senseless because she chose to pour baccy chaw on his places for his verbal. shortly to be physical torment. Lily was held down by the other 2 work forces and had to watch as Rosaleen was beaten mindless and sent away to gaol. Even though Lily’s was non physically ache. her mind was to a great extent damaged at this point because she finds out from her male parent that Rosaleen could perchance killed by the work forces she that she offended. contradicting the fact that the work forces targeted her. When they arrived place at their Prunus persica farm. they got into an statement. and out of built up choler over his yesteryear perpetuated the prevarication that her female parent was merely coming back to garner her properties and to finally abandon Lily.

All throughout Lily’s immature life. the insinuation of her female parent non being there bares a negative impact on her biological. psychological. and societal countries of her life. Physically. she was a really beautiful immature miss. but through maltreatment she has developed cicatrixs on her organic structure. she seems acutely mentally instable. and developed a wont of lying and fraudulence in order to assist herself out of the state of affairs. In another comparing of life as a bee that she one time caught in a jar. she was trapped until she made the concluding determination to run off and seek the inquiries she needed to be answered about her female parent. Upon the going of her male parent. Lily escapes with merely a bag of points belonging to Deborah. Lily’s female parent. With her hopes high. she manages to acquire into the Colored ward of the infirmary with purposes to liberate Rosaleen ; she knew if she did non assist her. that cipher would be able to present her the aid needed to go forth the infirmary under constabulary supervising. Upon mousing out. they hitchhiked rather a ways because of a hint in her mother’s points.

Deborah had written the name of a town on the dorsum of image of a black Virgin Mary and she hopes it will take her to happening more information about her female parent. They headed for the town of Tiburon. despite the dangers the two of them faced going together. Upon making the town. Lily seeks nutrient for the couple and musca volitanss honey for canvas with an indistinguishable image of a black Virgin Mary at the general shop. After telling her nutrient to travel. she inquires about the label to the teller who offers to assist her. This minute. her mind was developing a sense of hope. The teller gives her all the information needed to acquire more information about her female parent. reconstructing her religion. Lily shows marks of emotional maltreatment as she created up a prevarication in order to assist herself to the following degree. She arrived at Boatrite’s house with Rosaleen and fiction a prevarication about why she was at that place. This shows that she did non swear anyone but Rosaleen.

The Boatrites are welcoming for the most portion to Lily. even though her narrative did non rather make sense. The Boatrite sisters provide nutrient. vesture. lodging. and employment for them. fixing them for a positive long-run hereafter. Lily seems to be August Boatrite’s learner as she was larning the trade of the household concern in reaping honey. While in the Boatrite house. Lily and Rosaleen were exposed to the spiritualty they needed to assist make full the emotional nothingness left by T. Ray. The Daughters seem to be Catholic. as they prayed to a statue of the Black Virgin Mary. Lily and Rosaleen join them in supplication. and Lily swoons. claiming it was the heat. when August knows she needed to be physically released from the emotional ironss that held her down from surging. The demand for reding early on is apparent as she was non able to command her emotions.

In the thick of her apprenticeship she was confronted with many different feelings ; Bing a immature stripling she was physically developing into grownup goon by acquiring taller and turning chest. This alteration causes her to bloom into a immature lady and plays a factor in her develops a crush on her Negro colleague Zach. Lily acted on her inherent aptitude to snog Zach and they engage in a relationship and he promises her his bosom. despite their race. By this clip in the film. Lily is likely the strongest she has even been. and asks to talk with August in private about her female parent while giving her the true ground for her being at the Boatrite house. She nevertheless still lacks the necessary self-denial and terminals of destructing the several bottles of honey in the farm house she and Rosaleen was remaining at. August informs her that she believes that her female parent loved her but needed to remain at the Boatrite house for safety from T. Ray with whom she truly did non love. Besides they married as a consequence of Deborah acquiring pregnant with T. Ray’s kid. August besides gives Lily some of Deborah’s points that was a pin in which T. Ray gave her and a exposure of Deborah keeping Lily as an baby.

In a turn of destiny. T. Ray showed up at the Boatright after an extended hunt attempt. and confronts Lily with physical maltreatment once more by slapping her. Lily showed the most strength by keeping her feelings of injury. and verbalising her emotions to her male parent. Upon hearing the noise. the Boatrite sisters and Rosaleen introduce themselves to T. Ray and after a spot of southern cordial reception he seemed to quiet down. He displaced his emotion towards his married woman. and projected it on to Lily all her life. Now. a much stronger individual all around was able to convert her male parent to allow her stay. She needed to cognize before he left that if she genuinely killed her female parent. and if her female parent genuinely merely came back for her properties ; T. Ray’s response was that Yes. she killed her female parent by accident and her female parent was coming back for Lily. This minute gave Lily the satisfaction she needed to make full the nothingness of non being loved and cared for every bit needed by her household. You can take your friends. but you can non take your household.

As household. it is assumed to be an constitution that is expected to supply for you. while giving the love necessary to make great societal accomplishments. The household construction is one that molds an person from when they are a kid and subsequently on affects them as grownups. go forthing her witnessing her mother’s opprobrious relationship most likely cause psychological injury Lily life. Lily played rebellious behaviours she was frequently dying and nervous. nevertheless determined to happen love. In the article. Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems. forecasters for mental wellness issues arise from a household construction struggle and household direction in a kid early ages 10-12. 13-14 and 15-18 is the cause of those kids mental wellness and substance usage when they are grownups ( Herrenkohl. Lee. Kosterman. & A ; Hawkins. 2012 ) .

The writer suggest that kid maltreatment such as physical. sexual. and psychological additions the hazard of depression. anxiousness. and substance usage ( Herrenkohl. Lee. Kosterman. & A ; Hawkins. 2012. p. 129 ) . In Lily’s instance she was beaten by her male parent and would frequently be punished by holding to kneel on grits for at times every bit long as an hr go forthing her psychological and physically abused. In order for her to assist herself. Lily had to demo rebellion. By non obeying the jurisprudence of the South and harbouring a runaway. she used lying and use to acquire her demands met and leaves a bad state of affairs. merely like her female parent. With contusions on her articulatio genuss. Lily’s artlessness had been taken from her in whom she despised her maltreatment so much that when offer grits by the Boatrites. she instantly refuses them and changes the topic. This exchange shows in fact shows that she recognizes a trigger object of her emotions and deflected the hurting by constructively altering the subject. therefore demoing the edifice of her tattered self-importance brought on by her unsatisfactory household construction.

The household construction of such relays back to whom and how the family runs. the codification of behavior. which does what occupations. and whether or non the household positively interacts together effects striplings down the route. Lily’s System was made up of a cruel male parent. an African American Nanny. and herself at foremost. The System Theory developed in 1920’s aids us describe the operation of the household by saying all systems are composed of varies subsystems ; nevertheless Systems Theory trades with the system as a whole and non in parts. It helps Social workers with the understanding interrelatednesss between different people. groups. organisations and their environments. Systems Theory aids with developing holistic. contextual. and rational position of persons and the environment in which they live ( Robbins. Chatterjee. & A ; Canda. 2011 ) .

The societal concept of the Systems Theory can be complex and is made up by different footings. The ecological position works a manus and manus with systems theory. The ecological position puts accent on the person and household system. It is the context for understanding why persons behave the manner they do ( Robbins. Chatterjee. & A ; Canda. 2011 ) . Looking at System’s theory and ecological position you can associate many of the constructs of the Theory to household struggle and its effects on Lily. Lily lacked the ability to be a kid as she cooked and frequently took attention of herself due to her father’s choler and control issues. When you look at a person’s mental wellness. you look at this person’s geographical beginning ; how the act with others. where they work. their economic position. and wholly that describes the type of societal environment did this individual come from.

In Lily’s instance she came from an environment of maltreatment and disregard. Lily’s father did non prosecute in any activities with her. frequently destructing her self-importance by stating her female parent left her and did non love her. T. Ray understood that when he brought it up that it would rupture Lily apart. Lily father physically hit her catching her face and slapping her. Lily household had a dysfunctional household system that if she did non get away. she could hold perchance been in major danger herself because maltreatment merely escalates until you get assist. Neither Lily nor her male parent could populate functional lives one time Lily’s female parent passed. so that interconnectedness that a good household system had Lily lacked. The household systems theory suggests that persons can non be understood in isolation from one another. but instead as a portion of their household. as the household is an emotional unit. Families are systems of interrelated and mutualist persons. none of whom can be understood in isolation from the system ( GenoPro. 1998-2013 ) .

Strengths of Family System attack is that the theoretical account is strength based focussing on the interactive position. structural position. and constructivist position ( Wrench. 2009 ) . Looking at the household system attack shows that Lily came from a disfunction household and would hold a batch more harm when she grow up if she did non get down to make full the nothingness that was losing. It was function reversal such as Lily repairing dinner. and making family jobs as if she is the married woman when she is the kid. Lily male parent besides gave her grownup duties at the household concern while Lily should hold still been basking childhood. In households there are functions such as female parent. male parent. girl and boy. Each function besides plays a major portion of the household you may hold the responsible 1. rebellious one. or the emotional 1. It is the occupation of the household to equilibrate each other out and assist do the household unique ( Allen. 2007 ) .

Lilly’s male parent could non be the adult male of the house and a drama the nurturing function normally played by a female parent because of the hurting and angry that he held in towards his married woman and girl because she looked like Deborah. Lily became usage to her male parent shouting and being average and she begin to accommodate to the state of affairs. The household system besides makes up of household regulations as a unit. Family regulations frequently are non spoken but it is how the household operates together. It is the manner in which the household speaks to each other. how fond the household is. who make the determination. and how private the household is. Round causality refers to the fact that in household systems. each household member’s behaviour is caused by and causes the other household members’ behaviours. They are each impacting the other. in a round mode ( Allen. 2007 ) . Lilly was left with emptiness missing love but most significantly the love of her female parent. The things that typical girls do with their female parent Lily could non ; she could non play with her female parent hair or take bends making each other’s nails while interchanging conversations.

In the scene that T. Ray was told by the nursemaid that Lily needed to acquire measured for a bandeau it seemed to be a really awkward sense of world. This is normally a particular clip in a girl’s life. but it became an event that was abashing. Lily’s female parent being absent from her life and pa non cognizing how to get by or parent resulted an unstable life for Lily who seemed helpless. Lily’s male parent was depressed and angry which lead her ain depression and choler. Lily grew up emphasizing each twenty-four hours about how else her male parent would mistreat her and longing for the love and a affectionate memory of her female parent. Lily disquieted day-to-day about the fact that she was the 1 who killed her female parent. When the film opens Lily stated “What I know about myself is that I killed my female parent when I was four old ages old! ” The emphasis she felt left her feeling abandoned by her male parent and female parent ensuing in her running off seeking for love.

Freud believed that all persons of course find ways for their biological demands to be suited. such as happening nutrient and making shelter. He believes that these demands are satisfied and determined by libido or sexual pleasance ( McLeod. 2008 ) . The self-importance in Lily’s topographic point has logical thinking and maps out a program to command the state of affairs by utilizing assorted techniques to acquire consequences. ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman. 2012 ) Lily relieved that her male parent did non care and love her adequate to alter. She developed a program when she was frighten Roseline would be killed to happen out some replies about her female parent. Lily wanted nil but to experience the nothingness of cognizing that her female parent loved her and was coming to acquire her. Lily learned at a immature age to listen to her male parent and non disobey him. Lily besides learned that her male parent was non a good adult male and he did non pattern good usage of ethical motives and moralss. Lily besides used good judgement every bit far as when to state the Boatrites who she was and why she was in problem. when she did.

The superego is in control over the urges with the Idaho which makes the individual strive for illustriousness to actuate overall self-importance ( McLeod. 2008 ) . The cardinal function of the superego is to ever keep the urges of the Idaho. to farther maintain the longing to execute bad activities to a lower limit. The superego is responsible for chastening such actions society deems improper. whether it is force or a sex offense. It besides is the ground that the self-importance is influenced through puting realistic and moral ends ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman. 2012 ) . System Theory was developed in 1920’s to depict the working biological beings. All systems are composed of varies subsystem ; nevertheless Systems Theory trades with the system as a whole and non in parts. It helps Social workers with the understanding interrelatednesss between different people. groups. organisations and their environments. Systems Theory aids with developing holistic. contextual. and rational position of persons and the environment in which they live ( Robbins. Chatterjee. & A ; Canda. 2011 ) .

The societal building of the Systems Theory can be complex and is developed by different footings. The ecological position works a manus and manus with systems theory. The ecological position puts accent on the person and household system. It is the context for understanding why persons behave the manner they do ( Robbins. Chatterjee. & A ; Canda. 2011 ) . Looking at System’s theory and ecological position you can associate many of the constructs of the Theory to household struggle and its effects on Lily. The household systems theory suggests that persons can non be understood in isolation from one another. but instead as a portion of their household. as the household is an emotional unit. Families are systems of interrelated and mutualist persons. none of whom can be understood in isolation from the system ( GenoPro. 1998-2013 ) .

In households there are functions such as female parent. male parent. girl and boy. Each function besides plays a major portion of the household you may hold the responsible 1. rebellious one. or the emotional 1. It is the occupation of the household to equilibrate each other out and assist do the household unique. The household system besides make up of household regulations. Family regulations frequently are non spoken but it is how the household operates as a unit. It is the manner in which the household speaks to each other. how fond the household is. who make the determination. and how private the household is. Round causality refers to the fact that in household systems. each household member’s behaviour is caused by and causes the other household members’ behaviours. They are each impacting the other. in a round mode ( Allen. 2007 ) . This negative energy creates an environment in which the kid becomes stress. Stress is described a negative emotional reaction to the sense that one may fear or hold a loss of control to run into the demands of what they may necessitate ( Glaser. 2000. p. 103 ) .

A negative household construction creates emphasis in a manner in which a kid who is abandoned and neglected by their parents. Stressing is believed to ensue in wellness and psychological jobs. The writer of Child Abuse and Neglect and the Brain. ( Glaser. 2000. p. 105 ) argues that. terrible backdown and disregard in early childhood and exposure to parent’s force causes emphasis ; which causes a negative reaction towards the encephalon at an early age. Lily lacked the ability to be a kid as she cooked and frequently took attention of herself due to her male parent angry and control issues. It was function reversal such as Lily repairing dinner. and making family jobs as if she is the married woman when she is the kid. Lily’s male parent besides gave her grownup duties at the household concern while Lily should hold still been basking childhood. In households there are functions such as female parent. male parent. girl and boy. Each function besides plays a major portion of the household you may hold the responsible 1. rebellious one. or the emotional 1. It is the occupation of the household to equilibrate each other out and assist do the household unique ( Allen. 2007 ) .

The Family system theory attack besides demonstrates that Lily household system was disfunction ensuing in the recent job of her running off. The restrictions of household system theory does non hold specific hypothesis that can be tested. Harmonizing to Fizatrick and Noller it is best viewed as a metaphor for thought ( Wrench. 2009 ) . Other theoretician such as Feud psychoanalytic theory offers an in-depth position that accentuates researching the beginnings of abnormal psychology and considers developmental considerations ( Barry. 2012 ) . Freud’s psychoanalytic theory was created of two different theoretical accounts to gestate how an single personality is composed. One called the Topographic theoretical account which contains the unconscious. preconscious. and witting. The 2nd would be the Structural theoretical account consists of the Id. Ego. and Superego. He believes the unconscious holds the thoughts. ideas. and memories that you are non presently cognizant of. The preconscious is memories that a individual may non be believing about and can be remembered in an individual’s current idea ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman. 2012 ) .

In the film Lily would hold assorted dreams that would tiger negative ideas about the twenty-four hours she accidently killed her female parent. Lily is unsure what precisely happen and because she is left with that emptiness inside she had this thrust that she needed to make full. It was one in Lily frequently has dreams that are nightmares about the decease of her female parent. She knows that there are some good things and have memorable from her female parent where she tells narratives of what she believes her female parent is like. While Lily was at the Boatrite’s she was offered grits. nevertheless she said she wasn’t hungry due to retrieving her male parent doing her sit on the grits. Freud’s states that the unconscious head stills exist and it suppresses itself in your head. and waits to trip pent-up memories and manifest itself ( Freud. 1987 ) . Developmentally. the Idaho is the driving force behind the unconscious mind of a individual and reacts with no impulse control. It reasonably much meets the instinctual demands of the person at a moment’s notice ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman. 2012 ) .

Freud believed that all persons of course find ways for their biological demands to be suited. such as happening nutrient and making shelter. He believes that these demands are satisfied and determined by libido or sexual pleasance ( McLeod. 2008 ) . The self-importance in Lily’s topographic point has logical thinking and maps out a program to command the state of affairs by utilizing assorted techniques to acquire consequences. ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman. 2012 ) Lily relieved that her male parent did non care and love her adequate to alter. She developed a program when she was frighten Roseline would be killed to happen out some replies about her female parent. Lily wanted nil but to experience the nothingness of cognizing that her female parent loved her and was coming to acquire her. Lily learned at a immature age to listen to her male parent and non disobey him. Lily besides learned that her male parent was non a good adult male and he did non hold the ethical motives and moralss that he followed. Lily was non scared to stand up to the constabulary officers and make what she know was right. Lily besides used good judgement every bit far as when to state the Boatrites who she was and why she was in problem.

The superego is in control over the urges with the Idaho which makes the individual strive for illustriousness to actuate overall self-importance. ( McLeod. 2008 ) . The cardinal function of the superego is to ever keep the urges of the Idaho. to farther maintain the longing to execute bad activities to a lower limit. The superego is responsible for chastening such actions society deems improper. whether it is force or a sex offense. It besides is the ground that the self-importance is influenced through puting realistic and moral ends ( Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman. 2012 ) . Children are guiltless when they are immature unless corrupted. Lily felt like she did non hold a voice for old ages and she held in a batch of choler. Her sense of household construction was that non built on ethical motives and truth ; the existent household construction itself is who runs house clasp. are their regulations and jobs. Lily did non take her household. Lily household was chosen for her. Your household is your safe oasis. They are supposed to supply. raising. love and protect you. As we know there are many household issues in America today.

The household construction is want casts an person from when their kid and effects them as grownups. Lily witnessed maltreatment from a immature age. Her female parent stayed with an opprobrious male parent which psychologically caused injury to Lily. Lily displayed rebellious behaviours. she was frequently dying and nervous. nevertheless determined to happen love. In the article Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A developmental Analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors is that household struggle and household direction in a kid early ages 10-12. 13-14 and 15-18 is the cause of those kids mental wellness and substance usage when they are grownups ( Herrenkohl. Lee. Kosterman. & A ; Hawkins. 2012 ) . The writer suggest that kid maltreatment such as physical. sexual. and psychological additions the hazard of depression. anxiousness. and substance usage ( Herrenkohl. Lee. Kosterman. & A ; Hawkins. 2012. p. 129 ) . In Lily’s instance she was beaten by her male parent and would frequently be punished by holding to kneel on grits for long periods of clip. The fact that despite the Lily was fundamentally acquiring her vita physical demands met by Rosaleen. Lily had nutrient available. fabrics to have on. and a steady shelter to populate in which in kernel sounds like life in a prison.

Frequently neglecting biological. cultural. and societal demands of a individual can alter a person’s character. The character of a individual is built through positive observation and interaction with others in the household construction. ( Barry. 2012 ) This construct of miming refers back to the thoughts brought up in the societal acquisition theory. Its primary focal point is to foreground the demand for a theoretical account for positive behaviour and constructive emotional reactions to occurrences in the home ground. It is a type of behaviourism that includes the thought that the environment places a large part on behaviour every bit good. Lily’s inability to happen aid early have was a merchandise of her being cared after by person who could non truly care for himself.

The societal acquisition theory focuses on the thoughts that involve lodging. vicinities. poorness levers ( Abbott. 2007 ) ; with ethical motives down in home ground. it was really difficult for Lily to happen the positive experimental acquisition she needed to turn harmonizing to Freud’s theory. Lily rebelled against her society and male parent screening that she no longer shared the inexperienced person that immature kids have. Lily’s prolonged forced silence made gave her the clip to believe to get away her bad state of affairs. She found more household construction in 3 sisters than she had of all time found in her male parent. The Boatrite place was built on love. ethical motives and truth ; these were everything she lacked as a kid. Lily did non take her birth household. but she chose a better household for her that made certain she was provided for. nurtured. most of all loved.

Mentions

Allen. J. A. ( 2007. January 2007 ) . Cultural/Systemic Approaches. Retrieved 2013. from Family System Theory: World Wide Web. bluffton. edu/courses/tlc/nathp/powerpoint/familysystems. ppt

Barry. L. ( 2012. Aprill 23 ) . Strengths and Weaknessess of Psychoanalysis. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //quizlet. com/11348538/strengths-and-weaknessess-of-psychoanalysis-flash-cards/

Freud. S. ( 1987 ) . The Origin and development of Psycho-Analysis: First and Second talks. the American diary of Psychology. vol. 100 No. 3/4. pp. 472-488.

GenoPro. ( 1998-2013 ) . GenoPro. Retrieved from Family System Theory: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. genopro. com/genogram/family-systems-theory/

Glaser. D. ( 2000 ) . Child Abuse and Neglect and the Brain. Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 97-116. Herrenkohl. T. I. . Lee. J. O. . Kosterman. R. . & A ; Hawkins. D. J. ( 2012 ) . Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A Developmental analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors. Adolescent Health 51. 129-135.

McLeod. S. ( 2008 ) . Id Ego Superego. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. simplypsychology. org/psyche. hypertext markup language

Robbins. S. P. . Chatterjee. P. . & A ; Canda. E. R. ( 2011 ) . Contemporary Human Behavior Theory: A critical position for Social Work 3rd edition. Boston. MA: Allyn & A ; Bacon. whitehouse. gov. ( n. d. ) . 36 Lyndon B. Johnson. Retrieved August 20. 2013. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. whitehouse. gov/about/presidents/lyndonbjohnson

Wrench. J. S. ( 2009. January 23 ) . FAMILY SYSTEMS THEORY. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. slideshare. net/JasonSWrench/family-systems-theory-presentation

Zastrow. C. H. . & A ; Kirst-Ashman. K. K. ( 2012 ) . Understanding human behaviour and the societal environment ( 9th ed. ) . Belmont. Calcium: Thomson Learning.

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