This survey was utilized a convenience sample composed of voluntaries. Participants were informed through proclamation and phone contacted so indiscriminately selected to instructional conditions. They were included PTTC manager, instructor trainers and pupil instructors. The PTTC manager who responsible for staffing was first contacting by phone call, consent missive and information sheet. Before supplying the related information, a face to confront meeting with PTTC manager was made to speak about the intent of the survey. After run intoing with PTTC manager, the research worker asked him to lend and post the information sheet of group treatment on the information board.
As consequence, eight instructor trainers who learning Maths, Physique and societal survey, that included content on the sample video-ed instance surveies, were selected through naming in so ask foring to take part. It is interesting to observe that there were entire of 15 teacher trainers among 25 at PTTC called in before 5:00 p.m. Nevertheless, merely eight instructor trainers were considered to be in the group treatment. The same process for choosing pupil instructors that there were 28 pupil instructors among 2561 pupil instructors who were interested in take parting had called in and asked for affecting in the treatment before 5:00 p.m. As consequence, merely 8 pupils were considered and selected to take portion in the treatment. The concluding 8 participants per group that were eventually selected were made through the consideration of who have called in first from figure one to figure eight before 5:00 p.m.
After the enlisting procedure, participants were asked to sing on the consent missive and so were invited to take part in a little treatment group that watched a short picture that has been developed for instructor preparation. There was a detached treatment between instructor trainers and pupil instructors about utilizing pictures for instructor preparation. Each focal point group consisted of 8 people. The focal point group treatment was taken about 45 – 60 proceedingss and was conducted in Khmer. The focal point group was used a semi-structured inquiry attack leting chance for participants to research thoughts of involvement to them without overt research worker control or way. The linguistic communication of the interview and the linguistic communication of the written manual which provided before the focal point group meet were both in Khmer. Prior to the treatment, the manual about the short picture were distributed to let clip for participants to read and believe about the thoughts.
To accomplish the aims of the survey, the research worker have carefully considered the undermentioned ethical values and rules.
Seeked informed consent from participants
The consent missive is a utile tool for participants in take parting in research specifically, in current Cambodia context. The PTTC manager, instructor trainers and pupil instructors were received consent for take parting in the survey. In add-on, participants have obtained information about the intent of the survey so that they were able to understand and enabled them to do a determination whether or non to let the research to take topographic point at their workplace. Furthermore, participants were given chances to inquire inquiries about the survey in order to assist them make up one’s mind if they want to take portion in the survey. The major facet of deriving the consent missive from the PTTC manager and staff for take parting in the research was voluntary, so the research worker did non set either any force per unit area on the participants or do them vulnerable. The advantage is that seeking informed consent is to protect the rights and self-respect of PTTC manager and staff. Seeking consent signifier will bring forth the assurance for both research worker and participants and it will take to coaction, which succeeds in the research.
Respected for the positions of the pupil instructors
Student instructors seemed to be nervous of speaking, particularly when they answered inquiries during the treatment. They ever had trouble in utilizing words and thoughts to discourse and shared experience. However, their responses were non wholly met the demands of the survey. With this respect, I encouraged and helped them go more confident about replying and discoursing. Their ideas and understanding were accepted and valued in logical ways because the thoughts they came up with represent their engagements. And it is unethical if their positions were kept behind, because they have rights to state and show their thoughts. They would experience happy and satisfied with the treatment if their positions were respected and encouraged. In making so, it represents the regard for the positions of the pupil instructors and it is an ethical value, which is needed for the survey.
Build trust and relationship with PTTC manager, instructor trainers and pupil instructors.
The survey was faced some troubles to be accepted the informed consent from the PTTC manager. It was really disputing to buttonhole him. To work out these jobs, the research worker was friendly, composure, relaxed and respectful. It ‘s of import to chew the fat with participants or PTTC manager by inquiring simple and informal inquiries such asA how they are or how long they have started their work or the work goes good. And For the instructor trainers and pupil instructors, the inquiries were how they were or how long they have worked and studied at PTTC or they were busy at the minute. It is a great thought to listen to them and hold some merriment and so friendly relationships was made. And it was besides an gratifying manner that I offered them some fruit and drinks. The thoughts mentioned have helped to construct trust and relationship between the research worker and participants and so they will be happy to affect in the following survey.
Respect for privateness and confidentiality to participants
Peoples have different values and the demands of regard are non truly the same as others. Some individuals are willing to portion things they have with others, but some garbage to make so. The apprehension of other feelings is the cardinal component of traveling towards success in constructing good relationships. It is besides the chief thought to better the motive of engagements. When people know how to esteem others, they can portion their ain values with others or they can accept the values from each other for the common end and so they would fulfill what they participate. However, the satisfactions of one ‘s feelings links to the regard of privateness and confidentiality to person you involve and work with. In connexion to the regard for privateness and confidentiality for this survey, I did non utilize or compose participants ‘ names on the questioned documents every bit good as in the research study. And so the study and the findings will maintain confidential to the participants and to esteem for their privateness. The thought of making this is to avoid doing injury and exposure of the participants.
Did non overemphasize the facts in research study
Truthfulness is a personal quality of individual and it plays as an of import function in esteeming and valuing each other in the society. It is besides an ethical value, which everyone needs to go on to them. The honestness brings us love, friends, relationships, trust, peace, engagement, success, etc. When person tries to conceal things, they may bring forth obstructions to life and working. And so they become stray and they could do problems for themselves or for others. Bing dishonesty is unethical and insensitive to people ‘s feelings. To avoid acquiring injury to participants, I have non exaggerated the facts in research study. All the findings and analysis are based on the thoughts and experiences coming up at the treatment, which participants rise. Exaggerating in study is stating a prevarication and information is invalid and undependable. In making this, it represents the deficiency of discourtesies for participants and makes them vulnerable.
Did non do promises or raise outlooks that can non be fulfilled
Making promises or raising outlooks to participants in research must non be made because they might non be fulfilled. In this instance, the participants would be disappointed and unhappy for research worker. Playing lip service made by researcher leads to lose trust and relationship, and deficiency of motive of engagements, particularly it represents discourtesy for respondents. The research becomes meaningless and it is dishonest. To acquire rid of these jobs, I did non do any promises or raise outlooks, which I can non carry through. The survey aims to happen out what the positions of educators/participants in the Kampuchean instructor preparation sphere are sing the usage of video-ed instance surveies as portion of instructor preparation plans merely. However, it does non intend that the survey is to happen ways to supply things, which I can non cover with those demands. Anyhow, this survey aims to roll up and analyse informations in order to specify that picture is an effectual tool for bettering instructor preparation and this resource will be used to use in term of cut downing and extinguishing the worst signifiers of learning scheme in the hereafter.
Maximized benefits in research
Sensitivity to the participants means to supply the benefits of their engagements. Planing a research is to seek to bring forth as many benefits as possible instead than making injury. However, avoiding injury is impossible, but the research worker should see the logical ways to minimise injury and maximise benefits. In connexion to maximising benefits, the survey was focused on some ethical rules involved in regard and applications in research such as vulnerable individuals, human self-respect, privateness and confidentiality, free and informed consent and justness. These ethical rules are the cardinal elements of maximising benefits for participants. This means that the research must be reasonably spread between the loads and benefits. And the rules have relevancy for research worker in profession such as societal work, instruction and community development. One advantage is that the bring forthing benefits for participants, persons, community and society.
Data Collection Method and restriction
There are many attacks to make this survey nonsubjective, but one of the most appropriate 1s that I considered is to utilize instance survey to happen out the thoughts and involvements from participants sing picture use as a tool for bettering teacher developing. As I understand instance surveies help pupils or scholar to better their ability and capacity to believe critically and analytically like Killen said that “ Case engaged participants in a corporate analysis of a “ piece of world ” with a common intent of deriving a deeper apprehension of the issues involved ( 2003 ) ” . Students or scholars will hold opportunity to better their critical thought accomplishments if they have watched a existent state of affairs or pattern when they are trained. The educational footing of instance method is really much a constructivist one.
It describes the thought that scholars need to prosecute in active acquisition experiences in order to face and animate their thoughts and understanding. With this respect, the survey aims to hold instructor trainers and pupil instructors believing critically while and after they have watched the video-ed instance. However, there are some of peculiar restrictions of instance surveies that Killen has mentioned. “ Appropriate instance surveies may non be available “ off the shelf ” . We need to pass a plentifulness of clip to develop instance surveies that address issues relevant to the results we want pupils to accomplish. Killen besides raised that “ Students sometimes become defeated because ( as in existent state of affairs ) the information in the instance may be uncomplete or deceptive ” ( Foran 2001 ) . It is true if reflect to my survey. The sample video-ed instance survey I have chose for my survey were non be available or appropriate for some pupil instructors ‘ capacity because of clip required and the excessively much information in the manual.
The other attack was used for this survey is a Focus Group Discussion ( FGD ) . I think it is of import to utilize FGD as, a focal point group is, harmonizing to Lederman, “ a technique affecting the usage of in-depth group interviews in which participants are selected because they are positive, although non needfully representative, trying of a specific population, this group being ‘focused ‘ on a given subject ” ( p.25-30 ) . With this respect, selected participants will hold opportunity to show their thoughts specifically sing to the video-cased survey that will be farther used at their work topographic point.
Harmonizing to Parker and Tritter ( 2006 ) , in focal point groups the research worker plays the function of facilitator ‘ or ‘moderator ‘ ; that is, facilitator/moderator of group treatment between participants, non between her/himself and the participants. Hence, where focal point groups are concerned, the research worker takes a peripheral, instead so a centre-stage function for the simple ground that it is the inter-relational kineticss of the participants that are of import, non the relationship between research worker and researched. Whilst discoursing the sorts of oppugning schemes, facilitators might deploy during focal point group research ( Bloor,2001, pp.42-43 ) supply a clear account of how this agreement works: In focal point group, the aim is non chiefly to arouse the group ‘s replies, but instead to excite treatment and thereby understand ( through subsequent analysis ) the significance and norms which underlie those group replies. In group interviews the interviewer seeks replies in focal point groups the facilitator seeks group interaction.
The most of import ground for carry oning a focal point group treatment with this survey is that, foremost, it could easy make beginnings of information from assorted positions of participants ; secondly, it is a good manner to acquire information from participants and eventually it is a quite easy and speedy method to run. On other manus, there are besides some restrictions that need to be considered sing this method that include the resources that may be needed to be organized, the potency for a minority of voices to rule forestalling other voices being heard. Although this research undertaking does non research issues that are of a confidential nature focal point group treatments can non vouch the confidentiality of thoughts or sentiments shared amongst participants because of the very nature of a group. This may suppress some from showing positions that could be considered alternate or contrary to the prevalent sentiments or positions.
The usage of semi structured inquiries in the focal point group interview allows the research worker to research the positions and sentiments of participants whilst giving some form or signifier to the interview. It will supply range for persons to spread out their positions and take the interview into countries perchance non antecedently considered by the research worker. It permits for profusion in responses when compared to a structured interview procedure or a pen and paper study method. A possible restriction of such an attack is the possibility that the focal point group will travel over the clip bound particularly if conducted by a research worker will restrict accomplishments in group direction.
The information from this focal point group treatment were collected through digital voice recording, and note pickings. Analysis was ab initio involved transcribing the interviews. Similar phrases from each transcript were put together under descriptive labels. In this manner, informations were pooled and a form emerges.
Findingss from the survey were analysed in two ways: through playing tape recording equipment and through forming the information in a manner that would reply the focal point group treatment inquiries.
Playing tape recording equipment: As a research worker, I took the function of both an analysis expert and media expert to reexamine the replies. Ideally, such reappraisal should be done by a 3rd individual, my supervisor, to avoid prejudice, but this was impossible due to limited clip.
Forming the information: Findingss were organized to reply the designed inquiries that the research worker had. Findingss from this analysis helped carry through the PTTC ‘s end of bettering quality instruction and instructors ‘ capacity.