Categories and types of leadership Leadership is a quality a person may have. One can categorize the exercise of leadership as either actual or potential: * actual – giving guidance or direction, as in the phrase “the emperor has provided satisfactory leadership”. * potential – the capacity or ability to lead, as in the phrase “she could have exercised effective leadership”; or in the concept “born to lead”. In both cases, as a result of the constancy of change some people detect within the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the act of learning appears fundamental to certain types of leading and leadership.
When learning and leadership coalesce, one could characterize this as “learnership”. Leadership can have a formal aspect (as in most political or business leadership) or an informal one (as in most friendships). Speaking of “leadership” (the abstract term) rather than of “leading” (the action) usually implies that the entities doing the leading have some “leadership skills” or competencies.  The Psychology of Leadership One of the differentiating factors between Management and Leadership is the ability or even necessity to inspire.
A Leader, one who can instill passion and direction to an individual or group of individuals, will be using Psychology to affect that group either consciously or unconsciously. Those who seem to be “Natural Leaders” and effectively inspire groups without really knowing the strategies or tactics used are considered Charismatic Leaders. The conscious Leader on the other hand applies a variety of psychological tactics that affect the “reactions” of a group to the environment they exist in.
In numerous “directive” (meaning to willfully direct as opposed to unconsciously do) Organizational psychology disciplines such as “Directive Communication” by Arthur F Carmazzi and theories like “The ripple effect” by Sigal Barsade, leadership is a product of awareness and command of the reactions and influences of a group on the individual as well as the individual on the group. A Leader’s successful application of directive organizational psychology by modifying specific leadership behaviors towards the group, will yield an Organizational culture that is in essence “inspired”.  The Embodiment of Leadership
Types Of Leadership Structures Leadership Effectiveness Leadership Behaviors Leadership Development Leadership Qualities Individualized Leadership Leadership Theory Market Leadership Effective Style Leadership Skills Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership Ghenggis Khan Effective Manager Situational Leadership Leadership Relation Leaders Leadership Leadership Styles Management Styles People Managers Most research into leadership mistakenly focused on cognitive and intellectual processes, forgetting the important fact that every cognitive process is an embodied process.
In the book Leading People the Black Belt Way, Timothy Warneka accurately points out that, “Great leadership begins with the body. ” People are living, organic beings, and medical research is increasingly recognizing the truth that mind and body are, in fact, one. While we often speak about mind and body as separate entities, great leaders understand that mind and body are, in reality, two sides of the same coin. Superior leaders recognize further that an awareness of their own physical selves is a critical component of their success.
In a very real way, our toes, stomachs, and shoulders are on equal footing (pardon the pun) with our thoughts and ideas. As with any other tool, however, leaders must be trained to use embodied leadership technology appropriately and effectively. In leadership, as in the martial arts, your stance is critical to your success. If you have a weak stance, then every way you lead will be fundamentally flawed. For example, if you have a weak stance in your emotional life, then you will have significant difficulties when you attempt to lead other people relationally.
Recalling that we are embodied beings, I do not mean the word stance to be understood only metaphorically. I am also using the word stance in the literal sense, in terms of how leaders actually carry themselves physically when they lead others. Learning embodied stance will deepen your capacity for experiencing your own emotions, and better equip you to cope with the emotions of others, from the lighthearted to the highly conflicted. Your stance, you will learn, has a very literal, not to mention enormous impact on your ultimate success as a leader.
Most research into leadership mistakenly focused on cognitive and intellectual processes, forgetting the important fact that every cognitive process is an embodied process. In the book Leading People the Black Belt Way, Timothy Warneka accurately points out that, “Great leadership begins with the body. ” People are living, organic beings, and medical research is increasingly recognizing the truth that mind and body are, in fact, one. While we often speak about mind and body as separate entities, great leaders understand that mind and body are, in reality, two sides of the same coin.
Superior leaders recognize further that an awareness of their own physical selves is a critical component of their success. In a very real way, our toes, stomachs, and shoulders are on equal footing (pardon the pun) with our thoughts and ideas. As with any other tool, however, leaders must be trained to use embodied leadership technology appropriately and effectively. In leadership, as in the martial arts, your stance is critical to your success. If you have a weak stance, then every way you lead will be fundamentally flawed.
For example, if you have a weak stance in your emotional life, then you will have significant difficulties when you attempt to lead other people relationally. Recalling that we are embodied beings, I do not mean the word stance to be understood only metaphorically. I am also using the word stance in the literal sense, in terms of how leaders actually carry themselves physically when they lead others. Learning embodied stance will deepen your capacity for experiencing your own emotions, and better equip you to cope with the emotions of others, from the lighthearted to the highly conflicted.
Your stance, you will learn, has a very literal, not to mention enormous impact on your ultimate success as a leader.  Leadership associated with positions of authority In On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History, Thomas Carlyle demonstrated the concept of leadership associated with a position of authority. In praising Oliver Cromwell’s use of power to bring King Charles I to trial and eventual beheading, he wrote the following: “Let us remark, meanwhile, how indispensable everywhere a King is, in all movements of men. It is strikingly shown, in this very War, what becomes of men when hey cannot find a Chief Man, and their enemies can. “ From this viewpoint, leadership emerges when an entity as “leader” contrives to receive deference from other entities who become “followers”. And as the passage from Carlyle demonstrates, the process of getting deference can become competitive in that the emerging “leader” draws “followers” from the factions of the prior or alternative “leaders”. In representative democracies the people retain sovereignty (popular sovereignty) but delegate day-to-day administration and leadership to elected officials.
In the United States, for example, the Constitution provides an example of recycling authority. In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the American Founders rejected the idea of a monarch. But they still proposed leadership by people in positions of authority, with the authority split into three powers: in this case the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary. Under the American theory, the authority of the leadership derives from the power of the voters as conveyed through the electoral college. Many individuals share authority, including the many legislators in the Senate and the House of Representatives. 2]  Leadership cycles If a group or an organization wants or expects identifiable leadership, it will require processes for appointing/acquiring and replacing leaders. Traditional closed groups rely on bloodlines or seniority to select leaders and/or leadership candidates: monarchies, tribal chiefdoms, oligarchies and aristocratic societies rely on (and often define their institutions by) such methods. Competence or perceived competence provides a possible basis for selecting leadership elites from a broader pool of rytewytepotential talent.
Political lobbying may prove necessary in electoral systems, but immediately demonstrated skill and character may secure leadership in smaller groups such as gangs. Many organizations and groups aim to identify, grow, foster and promote what they see as leadership potential or ability – especially among younger members of society. See for example the Scouting movement. For a specific environment, see leaders hip development. The issues of succession planning or of legitimation become important at times when leadership (particularly individual leadership) might or must change due to term-expiry, accident or senescence. edit] Titles emphasizing authority At certain stages in their development, the hierarchies of social ranks implied different degrees or ranks of leadership in society. Thus a knight led fewer men in general than did a duke; a baronet might in theory control less land than an earl. See peerage for a systematization of this hierarchy, and order of precedence for links to various systems. In the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, several political operators took non-traditional paths to become dominant in their societies.
They or their systems often expressed a belief in strong individual leadership, but existing titles and labels (“King”, “Emperor”, “President” and so on) often seemed inappropriate, insufficient or downright inaccurate in some circumstances. The formal or informal titles or descriptions they or their flunkies employed express and foster a general veneration for leadership of the inspired and autocratic variety. The definite article when used as part of the title (in languages which use definite articles) emphasizes the existence of a sole “true” leader.  Symbolism of leadership
Main article: Symbols of leadership Various symbolic attributes — often varying according to the cultural milieu — mark out authority-figures and help make them seem special and revered or feared. For examples and discussion, see symbols of leadership.  Leadership among primates Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, in Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence present evidence that only humans and chimpanzees, among all the animals living on earth, share a similar tendency for a cluster of behaviors: violence, territoriality, and competition for uniting behind the one chief male of the land. 3] This position is contentious. Many animals beyond apes are territorial, compete, exhibit violence, and have a social structure controlled by a dominant male (lions, wolves, etc. ) suggesting Wrangham and Peterson’s evidence is not empirical. By comparison, bonobos, the second-closest species-relatives of man, do not unite behind the chief male of the land. The bonobos show deference to an alpha or top-ranking female that, with the support of her coalition of other females, can prove as strong as the strongest male in the land.
Thus, if leadership amounts to getting the greatest number of followers, then among the bonobos, a female almost always exerts the strongest and most effective leadership. However, not all scientists agree on the allegedly “peaceful” nature of the bonobo or its reputation as a “hippie chimp”.  Some have argued that, since the bonobo pattern inverts the dominant pattern among chimpanzees and men with regard to whether a female can get more followers than a male, humans and chimpanzees both likely inherited gender-bias against women from the ancestors of the chimpanzees; gender- bias features as a genetic condition of men.
And the bias against women having leadership as a position of authority occurs in most cultures in the world. As of 2002, Sweden had the highest percentage of women in the legislature: but only 43%. And the United States, Andorra, Israel, Sierra Leone, and Ireland tied for 57th place with less than 15% of the legislature women.  Admittedly, those percentages significantly outclass the occurrence of female chimpanzees becoming alpha of the community by getting the most followers, but similar trends exist in manifesting a general gender-bias across cultures against females gaining leadership as a position of authority over followers.
An alternative explanation suggests that those individuals best suited to lead the a group will somehow rise to the occasion and that followers (for some reason) will accept them as leaders or as proto-leaders. In this scenario, the traits of the leaders (such as gender, aggressiveness, etc. ) will depend on the requirements of a given situation, and ongoing leadership may become extrapolated from a series of such situations. In cultural anthropology, much speculation on the origins of human leadership relates to the perceived increasing need for dispute resolution in increasingly ensely-populated and increasingly complex societies. The image of swarms of lemmings which follow the first lemming off a cliff appears frequently in characterizing followers. The animal kingdom also provides the actual model of the bellwether function in a mob of sheep. And human society also offers many examples of emulation. The fashion industry, for example, depends on it. Fashion marketers design clothing for celebrities, then offer less expensive variations/imitations for those who emulate the celebrities.
Unintentional leadership can also occur from more pro-active forms followership. For example, in organizations which punish both leadership inaction and mistakes, and in which a predicament has no good solution, a common tendency involves declaring oneself a follower of someone else — metaphorically passing the buck. Another example of followership without intentional leadership comes with the market leadership of a pioneering company, or the price leadership of a monopolist.
Other companies will emulate a successful strategy, product, or price, but originators may certainly not desire this — in fact they often do all they can legally do to prevent such direct competition. The term “leadership” sometimes applies (confusingly) to a winning position in a race. One can speak of a front-runner in a sprint or of the “leader” in an election or poll as in a position of leadership. But such “leadership” does not involve any influence processes, and the “leader” will have followers who may not willingly choose to function as followers.
Once again: one can make an important distinction between “in the lead” and the process of leadership. Once again, leadership implies a relations hip of power – the power to guide others. Leading from the front, in a military sense, may imply foolhardiness and unnecessary self-exposure to danger: these do not necessarily make for successful long-term leadership strategies.  Scope of leadership One can govern oneself, or one can govern the whole earth. In between, we may find leaders who operate primarily within: * youth * families * bands * tribes * organizations states and nations * empires Intertwined with such categories, and overlapping them, we find (for example) religious leaders (potentially with their own internal hierarchies), work-place leaders (executives, officers, senior/upper managers, middle managers, staff-managers, line-managers, team- leaders, supervisors … ) and leaders of voluntary associations. Some anthropological ideas envisage a widespread (but by no means universal) pattern of progression in the organisation of society in ever-larger groups, with the needs and practices of leadership changing accordingly.
Thus simple dispute resolution may become legalistic dispensation of justice before developing into proactive legislative activity. Some leadership careers parallel this sort of progression: today’s school-board chairperson may become tomorrow’s city councilor, then take in (say) a mayordom before graduating to nation-wide politics. Compare the cursus honorum in ancient Rome.  Orthogonality and leadership Those who sing the praises of leadership or of certain types of leadership may encounter problems in implementing consistent leadership structures.
For example, a pyramidal structure in which authority consistently emanates from the summit can stifle initiative and leave no path for grooming future leaders in the ranks of subordinate levels. Similarly, a belief in universal direct democracy may become unwieldy, and a system consisting of nothing but representative leaders may well become stymied in committees. Thus many leadership systems promote different rules for different levels of leadership. Hereditary autocrats meet in the United Nations on equal representative terms with elected governments in a collegial leadership.
Or individual local democracies may assign some of their powers to temporary dictators in emergencies, as in ancient Rome. Hierarchies intermingle with equality of opportunity at different levels.  Support-structures for leadership Though advocates of the “big man” school of visionary leadership would have us believe that charisma and personality alone can work miracles, most leaders operate within a structure of supporters and executive agents who carry out and monitor the expressed or filtered-down will of the leader.
This undercutting of the importance of leadership may serve as a reminder of the existence of the follower: compare followership. A more or less formal bureaucracy (in the Weberian sense) can throw up a colorless nonentity as an entirely effective leader: this phenomenon may occur (for example) in a politburo environment. Bureaucratic organizations can also raise incompetent people to levels of leadership (see Peter Principle). In modern dynamic environments formal bureaucratic organizations have started to become less common because of their inability to deal with fast-changing circumstances.
Most modern business organizations (and some government departments) encourage what they see as “leadership skills” and reward identified potential leaders with promotions. In a potential down-side to this sort of development, a big-picture grand-vision leader may foster another sort of hierarchy: a fetish of leadership amongst subordinate sub- leaders, encouraged to seize resources for their own sub-empires and to apply to the supreme leader only for ultimate arbitration. Some leaders build coalitions and alliances: political parties abound with this type of leader.
Still others depend on rapport with the masses: they labor on the shop-floor or stand in the front-line of battle, leading by example.  Determining what makes “effective leadership” In comparing various leadership styles in many cultures, academic studies have examined the patterns in which leadership emerges and then fades, other ways in which it maintains its effectiveness, sometimes by natural succession according to established rules, and sometimes by the imposition of brute force.
The simplest way to measure the effectiveness of leadership involves evaluating the size of the following that the leader can muster. By this standard, Adolf Hitler became a very effective leader for a period — even if through delusional promises and coercive techniques. However, this approach may measure power rather than leadership. To measure leadership more specifically, one may assess the extent of influence on the followers, that is, the amount of leading. Within an organizational context this means financially valuing productivity.
Effective leaders generate higher productivity, lower costs, and more opportunities than ineffective leaders. Effective leaders create results, attain goal, realize vision, and other objectives more quickly and at a higher level of quality than ineffective leaders. James MacGregor Burns introduced a normative element: an effective Burnsian leader will unite followers in a shared vision that will improve an organization and society at large. Burns calls leadership that delivers “true” value, integrity, and trust transformational leadership.
He distinguishes such leadership from “mere” transactional leadership that builds power by doing whatever will get more followers.  But problems arise in quantifying the transformational quality of leadership – evaluation of that quality seems more difficult to quantify than merely counting the followers that the straw man of transactional leadership James MacGregor Burns has set as a primary standard for effectiveness. Thus transformational leadership requires an evaluation of quality, independent of the market demand that exhibits in the number of followers.
Current assessments of transformational and transactional leadership commonly make use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ), developed by Bass and Avolio in 1990 and revised in 1995. It measures five dimensions of transformational leadership: 1. idealized influence – attributions 2. idealized influence – behaviors 3. inspirational motivation 4. individualized consideration 5. intellectual stimulation The three dimensions of transactional leadership measured by the MLQ cover: 1. contingent reward 2. management by exception (active) . management by exception (passive) The functional leadership model conceives leadership as a set of behaviors that helps a group perform a task, reach their goal, or perform their function. In this model, effective leaders encourage functional behaviors and discourage dysfunctional ones. In the path-goal model of leadership, developed jointly by Martin Evans and Robert House and based on the “Expectancy Theory of Motivation”, a leader has the function of clearing the path toward the goal(s) of the group, by meeting the needs of subordinates.
Some commentators use the metaphor of an orchestral conductor to describe the quality of the leadership process. An effective leader resembles an orchestra conductor in some ways. He/she has to somehow get a group of potentially diverse and talented people – many of whom have strong personalities – to work together toward a common output. Will the conductor harness and blend all the gifts his or her players possess? Will the players accept the degree of creative expression they have?
Will the audience enjoy the sound they make? The conductor may have a clear determining influence on all of these questions.  Suggested qualities of leadership Studies of leadership have suggested qualities that people often associate with leadership. They include: * Guiding others through modeling (in the sense of providing a role model ) and through willingness to serve others first (compare followership) * Technical/specific skill at some task at hand * Initiative and entrepreneurial drive Charismatic inspiration – attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this esteem to motivate others * Preoccupation with a role – a dedication that consumes much of leaders’ life – service to a cause * A clear sense of purpose (or mission ) – clear goals – focus – commitment * Results-orientation – directing every action towards a mission – prioritizing activities to spend time where results most accrue * Cooperation -work well with others * Optimism – very few pessimists become leaders * Rejection of determinism – belief in one’s ability to “make a ifference” * Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to them – delegate in such a way as people will grow. * Role models – leaders may adopt a persona that encapsulates their mission and lead by example * Self-knowledge (in non-bureaucratic structures) * Self-awareness – the ability to “lead” (as it were) one’s own self prior to leading other selves similarly * With regards to people and to projects, the ability to choose winners – recognizing that, unlike with skills, one cannot (in general) teach attitude.
Note that “picking winners” (“choosing winners”) carries implications of gam blers’ luck as well as of the capacity to take risks, but “true” leaders, like gamblers but unlike “false” leaders, base their decisions on realistic insight (and usually on many other factors partially derived from “real” wisdom). * Understanding what others say, rather than listening to how they say things – this could partly sum this quality up as “walking in someone else’s shoes” (to use a common cliche). The approach of listing leadership qualities, often termed “trait theory”, assumes certain traits or characteristics will tend to lead to effective leadership.
Although trait theory has an intuitive appeal, difficulties may arise in proving its tenets, and opponents frequently challenge this approach. The “strongest” versions of trait theory see these “leadership characteristics” as innate, and accordingly labels some people as “born leaders” due to their psychological makeup. On this reading of the theory, leadership development involves identifying and measuring leadership qualities, screening potential leaders from non-leaders, then training those with potential.
David McClelland, a Harvard-based researcher in the psychology of power and achievement, saw leadership skills, not so much as a set of traits, but as a pattern of motives. He claimed that successful leaders will tend to have a high need for power, a low need for affiliation, and a high level of what he called activity inhibition (one might call it self- control). Situational leadership theory offers an alternative approach. It proceeds from the assumption that different situations call for different characteristics. According to this group of theories, no single optimal sychographic profile of a leader exists. The situational leadership model of Hersey and Blanchard, for example, suggest four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. For effectiveness, the model posits that the leadership-style must match the appropriate level of followership-development. In this model, leadership behaviour becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of followers as well. Other situational leadership models introduce a variety of situational variables.
These determinants include: * the nature of the task (structured or routine) * organizational policies, climate, and culture * the preferences of the leader’s superiors * the expectations of peers * the reciprocal responses of followers The contingency model of Vroom and Yetton uses other situational variables, including: * the nature of the problem * the requirements for accuracy * the acceptance of an initiative * time-constraints * cost constraints However one determines leadership behaviour, one can categorize it into various leadership styles. Many ways of doing this exist.
For example, the Managerial Grid Model, a behavioral leadership-model developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964, suggests five different leadership styles, based on leaders’ strength of concern for people and their concern for goal achievement. Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lipitt, and R. K. White identified three leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire, based on the amount of influence and power exercised by the leader. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader’s effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency.
This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favourableness (later called “situational control”).  Leadership “styles” (per House and Podsakoff) In 1994 House and Podsakoff attempted to summarize the behaviors and approaches of “outstanding leaders” that they obtained from some more modern theories and research findings. These leadership behaviors and approaches do not constitute specific styles, but cumulatively they probably  characterize the most effective style of today’s leaders/managers.
The listed leadership “styles” cover: 1. Vision . Outstanding leaders articulate an ideological vision congruent with the deeply-held values of followers, a vision that describes a better future to which the followers have an alleged moral right. 2. Passion and self- sacrifice. Leaders display a passion for, and have a strong conviction of, what they regard as the moral correctness of their vision. They engage in outstanding or extraordinary behavior and make extraordinary self-sacrifices in the interest of their vision and mission. 3. Confidence , determination, and persistence.
Outstanding leaders display a high degree of faith in themselves and in the attainment of the vision they articulate. Theoretically, such leaders need to have a very high degree of self-confidence and moral conviction because their mission usually challenges the status quo and, therefore, may offend those who have a stake in preserving the established order. 4. Image -building. House and Podsakoff regard outstanding leaders as self-conscious about their own image. They recognize the desirability of followers perceiving them as competent, credible, and trustworthy. . Role-modeling. Leader-image-building sets the stage for effective role-modeling because followers identify with the values of role models whom they perceived in positive terms. 6. External representation. Outstanding leaders act as spokes persons for their respective organizations and symbolically represent those organizations to external constituencies. 7. Expectations of and confidence in followers. Outstanding leaders communicate expectations of high performance from their followers and strong confidence in their followers’ ability to meet such expectations. . Selective motive-arousal. Outstanding leaders selectively arouse those motives of followers that the outstanding leaders see as of special relevance to the successful accomplishment of the vision and mission. 9. Frame alignment. To persuade followers to accept and implement change, outstanding leaders engage in “frame alignment”. This refers to the linkage of individual and leader interpretive orientations such that some set of followers’ interests, values, and beliefs, as well as the leader’s activities, goals, and ideology, becomes congruent and complementary. 0. Inspirational communication. Outstanding leaders often, but not always, communicate their message in an inspirational manner using vivid stories, slogans, symbols, and ceremonies. Even though these ten leadership behaviors and approaches do not really equate to specific styles, evidence has started to accumulate [citation needed ] that a leader’s style can make a difference. Style becomes the key to the formulation and implementation of strategy and plays an important role in work-group members’ activity and in team citizenship.
Little doubt exists that the way (style) in which leaders influence work- group members can make a difference in their own and their people’s performance[citation needed ]. (Adopted from: Robert House and Philip M. Podsakoff, “Leadership Effectiveness: Past Perspectives and Future Directions for Research” in Jerald Greenberg (ed. ), Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ. , 1994, pp . )  Leadership and vision Many definitions of leadership involve an element of vision — except in cases of involuntary leadership and often in cases of traditional leadership.
A vision provides direction to the influence process. A leader (or group of leaders) can have one or more visions of the future to aid them to move a group successfully towards this goal. A vision, for effectiveness, should allegedly: * appear as a simple, yet vibrant, image in the mind of the leader * describe a future state, credible and preferable to the present state * act as a bridge between the current state and a future optimum state * appear desirable enough to energize followers. succeed in speaking to followers at an emotional or spiritual level (logical appeals by themselves seldom muster a following) For leadership to occur, according to this theory, some people (“leaders”) must communicate the vision to others (“followers”) in such a way that the followers adopt the vision as their own. Leaders must not just see the vision themselves, they must have the ability to get others to see it also. Numerous techniques aid in this process, including: narratives, metaphors, symbolic actions, leading by example, incentives, and penalties.
Stacey (1992) has suggested that the emphasis on vision puts an unrealistic burden on the leader. Such emphasis appears to perpetuate the myth that an organization must depend on a single, uncommonly talented individual to decide what to do. Stacey claims that this fosters a culture of dependency and conformity in which followers take no pro-active incentives and do not think independently. kanungo’s charismatic leadership model describes the role of the vision in three stages that are continuously ongoing, overlapping one another.
Assessing the status quo, formulation and articulation of the vision, and implementation of the vision. This model suggests effective leadership needs these behaviors  Leadership’s relation with management Some commentators link leadership closely with the idea of management. Some regard the two as synonymous, and others consider management a subset of leadership. If one accepts this premise, one can view leadership as: * centralized or decentralized * broad or focused * decision -oriented or morale-centred * intrinsic or derived from some authority
Any of the bipolar labels traditionally ascribed to management style could also apply to leadership style. Hersey and Blanchard use this approach: they claim that management merely consists of leadership applied to business situations; or in other words: management forms a sub-set of the broader process of leadership. They put it this way: “Leadership occurs any time one attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group, regardless of the reason. . . . Management is a kind of leadership in which the achievement of organizational goals is paramount. ” (Hersey, P. nd Blanchard, K. :1982 : page 3) However, a clear distinction between management and leadership may nevertheless prove useful. This would allow for a reciprocal relationship between leadership and management, implying that an effective manager should possess leadership skills, and an effective leader should demonstrate management skills. One clear distinction could provide the following definition: * Management involves power by position. * Leadership involves power by influence. Abraham Zaleznik (1977), for example, delineated differences between leadership and management.
He saw leaders as inspiring visionaries, concerned about substance; while managers he views as planners who have concerns with process. Warren Bennis (1989) further explicated a dichotomy between managers and leaders. He drew twelve distinctions between the two groups: * Managers administer, leaders innovate * Managers ask how and when, leaders ask what and why * Managers focus on systems, leaders focus on people * Managers do things right, leaders do the right things * Managers maintain, leaders develop * Managers rely on control, leaders inspire trust Managers have a short-term perspective, leaders have a longer-term perspective * Managers accept the status-quo, leaders challenge the status-quo * Managers have an eye on the bottom line, leaders have an eye on the horizon * Managers imitate, leaders originate * Managers emulate the classic good soldier, leaders are their own person * Managers copy, leaders show originality Paul Birch (1999) also sees a distinction between leadership and management. He observed that, as a broad generalization, managers concerned themselves with tasks while leaders concerned themselves with people.
Birch does not suggest that leaders do not focus on “the task. ” Indeed, the things that characterise a great leader include the fact that they achieve. Effective leaders create and sustain competitive advantage through the attainment of cost leadership, revenue leadership, time leadership, and market value leadership. Managers typically follow and realize a leader’s vision. The difference lies in the leader realising that the achievement of the task comes about through the goodwill and support of others (influence), while the manager may not.
This goodwill and support originates in the leader seeing people as people, not as another resource for deployment in support of “the task”. The manager often has the role of organizing resources to get something done. People form one of these resources, and many of the worst managers treat people as just another interchangeable item. A leader has the role of causing others to follow a path he/she has laid out or a vision he/she has articulated in order to achieve a task. Often, people see the task as subordinate to the vision.
For instance, an organization might have the overall task of generating profit, but a good leader may see profit as a by-product that flows from whatever aspect of their vision differentiates their company from the competition. Leadership does not only manifest itself as purely a business phenomenon. Many people can think of an inspiring leader they have encountered who has nothing whatever to do with business: a politician, an officer in the armed forces, a Scout or Guide leader, a teacher, etc. Similarly, management does not occur only as a purely business phenomenon.
Again, we can think of examples of people that we have met who fill the management niche in non-business organisations. Non-business organizations should find it easier to articulate a non-money-driven inspiring vision that will support true leadership. However, often this does not occur. Differences in the mix of leadership and management can define various management styles. Some management styles tend to de-emphasize leadership. Included in this group one could include participatory management, democratic management, and collaborative management styles.
Other management styles, such as authoritarian management, micro-management, and top-down management, depend more on a leader to provide direction. Note, however, that just because an organisation has no single leader giving it direction, does not mean it necessarily has weak leadership. In many cases group leadership (multiple leaders) can prove effective. Having a single leader (as in dictators hip) allows for quick and decisive decision-making when needed as well as when not needed. Group decision-making sometimes earns the derisive label committee-itis” because of the longer times required to make decisions, but group leadership can bring more expertise, experience, and perspectives through a democratic process. Patricia Pitcher (1994) has challenged the bifurcation into leaders and managers. She used a factor analysis technique on data collected over 8 years, and concluded that three types of leaders exist, each with very different psychological profiles. She characterises one group as imaginative, inspiring, visionary, entrepreneurial, intuitive, daring, and emotional, and calls them “artists”.
In a second grouping she places “craftsmen” as well-balanced, steady, reasonable, sensible, predictable, and trustworthy. Finally she identifies “technocrats” as cerebral, detail-oriented, fastidious, uncompromising, and hard-headed. She speculates that no one profile offers a preferred leadership style. She claims that if we want to build, we should find an “artist leader”; if we want to solidify our position, we should find a “craftsman leader”; and if we have an ugly job that needs to get done (like downsizing), we should find a “technocratic leader. Pitcher also observed that a balanced leader exhibiting all three sets of traits occurs extremely rarely: she found none in her study. Bruce Lynn postulates a differentiation between ‘Leadership’ and ‘Management’ based on perspectives to risk. Specifically, “A Leader optimises upside opportunity; a Manager minimises downside risk. ” He argues that successful executives need to apply both disciplines in a balance appropriate to the enterprise and its context. Leadership without Management yields steps forward, but as many if not more steps backwards.
Management without Leadership avoids any step backwards, but doesn’t move forward.  Leadership by a group You are not currently logged in. While you are free to edit without logging in, be aware that doing so will allow your IP address (which can be used to determine the associated network/corporation name) to be recorded publicly, along with the dates and times at which you made your edits, in this page’s edit history. It is sometimes possible for others to identify you with this information. If you create an account, you can conceal your IP address and be provided with many other benefits.
Messages sent to your IP can be viewed on your talk page. Please do not save test edits. If you want to experiment, please use the sandbox.  Historical views on leadership Aristocratic thinkers have postulated that leadership depends on one’s blue blood or genes: monarchy takes an extreme view of the same idea, and may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction: see the divine right of kings. Contrariwise, more democratically-inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent.
In the autocratic/paternalistic strain of thought, traditionalists recall the role of leadership of the Roman pater familias. Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may damn such models as patriarchal and posit against them emotionally-attuned, responsive, and consensual empathetic guidance and matriarchies. Comparable to the Roman tradition, the views of Confucianism on “right living” relate very much to the ideal of the (male) scholar-leader and his benevolent rule, buttressed by a tradition of filial piety.
Within the context of Islam, views on the nature, scope and inheritance of leadership have played a major role in shaping sects and their history. See caliphate. In the 19th century, the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole concept of leadership into question. (Note that the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word “leadership” in English only as far back as the 19th century. ) One response to this denial of elitism came with Leninism, which demanded an elite group of disciplined cadres to act as the vanguard of a socialist revolution, bringing into existence the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership. The doctrines of Caesaro-papism have recurred and had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has often emphasized stewardship of divinely-provided resources – human and material – and their deployment in accordance with a Divine plan. Compare servant leadership. For a more general take on leadership in politics, compare the concept of the states man.  Alternatives to leadership
Within groups, alternatives to the cult of leadership include using decision-making structures such as co-operative ventures, collegiality, consensus, anarchism and applied democracy. One can downplay the ubiquitous idea of leadership by using structures such as information clearing houses or stressing functions such as administration. Note the different implications and connotations of the two phrases “coalition of the willing” and “US-led coalition”. The Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, which practices a form of distributed leadership, provides a textbook example of alternative leadership.