Cellular respiration is the chemical opposite of photosynthesis. What is its basic chemical formula?
C6H12O6(glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen) –> 6 H2O(water) + 6 CO2 (carbon dioxide)
Which isn’t an end product of glycolysis?
2 carbon dioxide molecules
The Krebs cycle occurs within the mitochondria of a cell. Which best describes the site of the Krebs (citric acid) cycle inside the mitochondria?
Before the Krebs cycle, pyruvate from glycolysis is attached to an enzyme that makes it easier to break down. Carbon dioxide is released and a molecule of NADH is formed. What name is given to the molecule that now enters the Krebs cycle?
The final step in the process of cellular respiration is the electron transport chain (ETC). What best describes the first step in the electron transport chain?
Energized electrons from NADH and FADH2 activate transport proteins.
Once enough H+ ions have been pumped outside the membrane, they tend to move back inside the membrane. What is this random movement of particles from areas of high concentration to low concentration called?
As the ions move back through the membrane, they flow through the enzyme that is the center of all cellular respiration. What is this important enzyme?
Two oxygen atoms enter the inner mitochondrial matrix at the end of the ETC. They bond with the electrons from the membrane and the protons that just passed through it to form what final product?
Autotrophs use ________ to make organic molecules
O2 is an important part of the ______
The light reactions involve a series of ________ conversions
An electron carrier called________ drives the Calvin Cycle
H2O provides________ for light reactions
Which best explains the role of plant pigments in photosynthesis?
Absorbs Light Energy
Which best represents an example of carbon fixation?
The incorporation of CO2 into organic molecules.
The main structure for gas exchange in plants is called the__________
During noncyclic electron flow of the light reaction, which molecule is the final acceptor of the high-energy electron?
In photosynthesis, which of the following is LEAST involved in the production of ATP?
This molecule combines with CO2 to form the 3-carbon substance, 3-phosphoglycerate.
ribulose biphoshpate (RuBP)
Which of the following requires both ATP and NADPH?
The Calvin Cycle
How is bacterial photosynthesis different from plant photosynthesis?
bacterial photosynthesis uses only one photosystem and does not produce oxygen
In noncyclic photophosphorylation, the electrons passed down through the electron transport system are obtained from__________
In __________, signals pass through a cell junction from one cell to adjacent cells
Direct Intercellular Signaling
Membrane-bound signals bind to receptors on adjacent cells in the process of __________
An example of _________ is when cells release signals that affect themselves and nearby target cells
In___________, cells release signals that only affect nearby target cells
Cells release signals that travel long distances to affect target cells during __________
Intracellular receptors are activated by signaling molecules that _________ the plasma membrane
In extracellular signaling, ligands bind to _____________
Cell Surface Receptors
Most types of enzyme-linked receptors function as ___________
In mammals, receptors for ____________ are intracellular
Which statement best describes the advantage of second messengers?
Amplification of the signal
Which statement does not explain the reason for differential cell expression in a multicellular organism?
The difference in the genomes of two different cell types in an organism.
When the acetylcholine receptor sites are not occupied..
the sodium channels remain closed.
When the acetylcholine binds to the receptor sites…
the sodium channels open.
When acetylcholine binds to receptor sites, opening sodium channels, what occurs next?
Sodium ions diffuse through, and enter the cell
What do sodium channels have receptor sites for?
Lipid soluble hormones…
Diffuse through the cell membrane
Once inside of the cell, these lipid soluble hormones…
bind with a specific receptor molecule inside the cytoplasm.
As a result of lipid-soluble hormones binding with a specific receptor molecule inside the cytoplasm, what happens?
the receptor-hormone complex binds with a DNA molecule to produce a mRNA molecule.
What is the ultimate result of lipid-soluble hormones on cells?
The binding of epinephrine to its receptor activates ________
The activation of a G-protein activates ___________
The enzyme phosphorylase catalyzes the conversion of
glycogen into glucose-6-phosphate
What does the liver do in fight-or-fight situations?
What catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cAMP?
What is an example of a second messenger?
What does a single cell surface receptor do?
activate many G-proteins
The________of the ECM allows cartilage to resist compression
The ECM provides__________ for animal skeletons
The role of the ECM in cell _________ is important for the attachment of tendons to bones
The role of the ECM is sensing the environment is provided by its ___________ function
Plant cells are attached to each other by the ____________
Animal cells attach to each other using ___________ proteins
Junctions called __________ permit communication between plant cells
Animal cells use _________ to attach to the ECM
Animal cells form close seals between cells using _________
Cell connections called ________ help adjacent animal cells communicate
What do multicellular organisms have that is different than unicellular organisms?
What does the ECM not do?
What is the cell wall not compose of?
What do focal adhesions not have?
What do adherens junctions not have?
This forms a seal that prevents the movement of substances between cells, for instance from the intestinal lumen into the blood.
The __________ is flexible and allows cells to increase in size
Primary Cell Wall
The ______ provides considerable strength for the cell
Secondary Cell Wall
The main component of the cell wall is ___________
In plants,_____________ is a metabolite that hardens the wall
Plant cell wall polysaccharides are made of repeating ___________ molecules
_____________ contain the genetic material
____________ is the DNA-protein complex making up chromosomes
DNA wraps itself around ___________ proteins
___________ is a repeating unit of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins
__________ organized into a more compact structure that is 30 nm in diameter
__________ is highly compacted and is transcriptionally inactive
___________ is less condensed and capable of gene transcription
While preparing for cell division, ___________
All euchromatin are converted to heterochromatin
____________ is a field of genetics involving examination of chromosomes
When pairing chromosomes, one must look for ___________
Shape, Number, and Banding Pattern
___________ is a pair of chromosomes
____________ is a single chromosome associated with sex
____________ are a pair of chromosomes