Cells Structure and Function

Question Answer
What are all living things composed of? Cells
What are cells? The basic unit of structure and function of all living things.
What are cells produced from? Other Cells
How do plant cells differ from animal cells? Plant cells have a cell wall and cholorplasts
How are vacuoles in plant cells different from vacuoles in animal cells? Plant cells often have one large vacuole versus an animal cell which has several small ones.
What is the function of the cell membrane? Controls what substances enter and leave the cell.
Who was the first scientist to see tiny living things that moved? Anton vanLeeuwenhoek
What are ribosomes? Organelles that produce proteins.
What is the function of the nucleus? Cell's control center, directs all cell activities
What is the function of the nucleolus? Ribosome production
What is the function of the endoplasmic retiuculum? Cell "highway" carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
What is the function of mitochondria? "Powerhouse" of the cell; converts energy in food molecules to energy
What is cytoplasm? Region between the cell membrane and the nucleus
What is the function of the Golgi Bodies? Packaging department – receive new proteins, package them and distribute to other parts of the cell
What are chloroplasts? Capture energy from the sun and use it to produce food for the cell
What are vacuoles? Storage area for a cell
What does a bacterial cell lack that plant and animal cells have? Nucleus
What are DNA and RNA examples of? Nucleic Acids
Give two examples of Carbohydrates. Sugars and Starches
What is osmosis? The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
What are proteins made up of? Amino Acids
What is the ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object? Resolution
What is the ability to make an object appear larger? Magnification
What element do all organic compounds contain? Carbon
Fats, oils and waxes are all examples of what? Lipids
What helps speed up chemical reactions in living things? Enzymes
What is the main method by which small molecules move across the cell membrane? Diffusion
What is the process of the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using cellular energy Passive Transport
What is the movement of materials through a cell using its own energy. Active Transport
Who was the first person to observe the cells of a cork? Robert Hooke
Who concluded that all plants are made up of cells? Matthais Schleiden
Who concluded that all animals are made up of cells? Theodor Schwann
What is the passage of water from an area of high concentration to low concentration? Osmosis

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