it provides energy to all cells in the body
Why is ATP described as the currency of a cell?
nitrogen base, ribose sugar, 3 phosphate
describe the structure of ATP
Bond is broken on one of the phosphates
How is the energy in ATP released?
it is labeled as potential energy, but has to broken down through cellular respiration to be used.
Describe the relationship between energy stored in food and ATP.
carbs are used the most, lipids make the most but cant be easily broken down, and proteins are rarely used
How does the energy content in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins differ?
three phosphate to two phosphates
How are ATP and ADP related?
to break down glucose to make ATP
What is the function of Cellular Respiration?
Aerobic-requires oxygen Anaerobic-no oxygen required
Explain the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Glycolysis and Fermentation are anaerobic/ Aerobic- Krebs and ETC
Which respiration processes are aerobic? Anaerobic?
diagram he gave you
What is the equation for cellular respiration? Connect each of the reactants and products to Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain.
Cells produce the most energy in the presence of which molecule?
What is the total number of ATP made for each molecule of glucose during respiration?
Where does Glycolysis take place?
glucose, 2 ATP
What molecules are needed to start Glycolysis (reactants)?
2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH
What are the products of Glycolysis?
How is the net amount of ATP made in Glycolysis different from the total number of ATP produced?
Converted into 2 Acetyl COA and head to Kreb Cycle
Describe where the products of Glycolysis go in the cell.
Matrix of Mitochondria
Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?
2 Aceytl COA, 2 NADH and Combination of four Carbon molecule to make Citric Acid
What molecules are needed to start the Krebs Cycle (reactants)?
4 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2, 2 ATP
What are the products of the Krebs Cycle?
setting up stage for ETC
Describe how the Krebs Cycle and Glycolysis are related.
Electron Carrier that make majority of ATP
What is the role of NADH and FADH2?
Catalyst that will combine with 4 carbon sugar that makes citric acid that will be used in Kreb
What is the role of Coenzyme A?
Inner Membrane of Mitochondria
Where does the Electron Transport Chain take place?
10 NADH 2 FADH2
What molecules are needed to start the Electron Transport Chain (reactants)?
10 NAD+ 2FAD+, 6H2O, 34 ATP
What are the products of the Electron Transport Chain?
All a working system to make ATP and both require Oxygen
Describe how the Electron Transport Chain and Krebs Cycle are related.
Electron go across the inner membrane of mitochondria, Hydrogen ions go across to outer part of membrane and come back through ATP Synthase and combine with ADP to for majorit of ATP, then Hydrogen combines with Oxygen and is released as a waste product
Explain the functions of electrons, hydrogen ions, and oxygen in the ETC.
Allow Hydrogen ions to pass back through and combine with ADP to form ATP
6. What is the role of ATP synthase in the ETC?
Where does anaerobic respiration take place?
when no oxygen is requred
When does anaerobic respiration take place?
fermentation uses glycolysis to start its process
Describe how fermentation and glycolysis are related.
lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation/ 2 lactic acid and 2 alcohols + 2 CO2
What are the two types of fermentation? What are the products for each?
How many molecules of ATP are produced in fermentation?
build up in muscles, cheese, wine, yogurt, etc.
What are some real world applications for each type of fermentation?
Both use glycolysis, but presence of oxygen seperates to processes
What are ways that aerobic and anaerobic respiration are similar? How are they different?
Lactic acid is found in…
bread, sour kraut, beer, soy sauce, vinegar, olive, pickles, wine, malt
Alcoholic fermentation is found in…
In aerobic respiration carbohydrates are broken down into:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 –> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP
equation for cellular respiration