Chapter 1 Cross Cultural Comparisons: people have different sexual attitudes and behaviors positions missionary- woman lying on her back with the man on top normal is defined by the community in which we live americans are known as ethnocentric- our own cultures behavior and customs as correct or as the way things should be if we traveled to another country we would be seen as “strange” USA people think negative about armpits but Abkhazian men are aroused by seeing a woman’s armpits navel is arousing in Samoa and a knee is erotic in New Guinea and Celebes Islands
USA men are aroused by breasts, Polynesian men are fascinated with the size, shape, and consistency of women’s genitals body weight is an important determinant of sexual attractiveness plump women are attractive in western cultures centuries ago kissing is highly erotic in western cultures the most sexually permissive group are the Mangaians asians and americans are the least permissive in their sexual attitudes and behaviors Sigmund Freud- A victorian era physician who emphasized the sexuality of children and adults Masters and Johnson- Conducted the first large scale of physiological study of human sexual behavior
Alfred Kinsey- He conducted the first large scale survey of American sexual attitudes and behaviors Henry Havelock Ellis- A victorian era sex researcher with a tolerant attitude about sexuality SIGMUND FREUD emphasized the sexuality of all people including children and HENRY HAVELOCK ELLIS published seven volumes about the psychology of sex were two researchers who attempted to counter anti-sexual attitudes Saint Paul- The first major influence on Christian sexual values, he regarded bodily pleasures as evil and thought it “well for a man not to touch a woman” Ancient Greeks- They believed in an ascetic philosophy: wisdom and virtue come rom denying physical pleasures Biblical Hebrews- They believed that the purpose of sex was for procreation, but had a very positive attitude about sexual relations between a husband and wife Victorians- They had antisexual attitudes that were reinforced by the mistaken medical beliefs of that time Saint Augustine- He viewed sex for procreation as an unpleasant necessity and Edward Laumann- He headed a recent survey of a nationally representative sample of adults living in households Anthropologists believe the most sexually repressed society in the world is to be IN’S BAEG
Four important influences that led to sexual revolution were LEISURE TIME, MOBILITY, BIRTH CONTROL, ANTIBIOTICS A random sample is properly defined as a sample drawn from a population in a manner so that EACH POSSIBLE SAMPLE OF THAT SIZE has an equal chance of being selected PLATO believe that intellectual love could lead to immortality A major influence on early christian thought was the greek philosophy of dualism, which separated BODY and that causes gonorrhea Victorian physicians called nocturnal emissions SPERMATORRHEA because they believed they were caused by the same thing that causes gonorrhea TELEVISION has een called “the most powerful storyteller in American culture, one that continually repeats the myths and ideologies, the facts and patterns of relationships that define our world and legitimize the social order” 85% of Americans favor sexuality education in school Sex is only a part of sexuality which encompasses all of the sexual attitudes, feelings The idea that the primary purpose of sex is for procreation originally came from HEBREWS CHRISTIANS affirmed the procreational purpose of sex but completely denied its pleasurable aspects The biggest proponent of this view within christianity was ST AUGUSTIENE? ln western ulture, negative attitudes about sex reached their zenith during the reign of QUEEN VICTORIA of england. With the availability of PENICILLIN during world war II and the marketing of BIRTH CONTROI, 1960 the us entered sexual revolution Using sex to sell products is called IDENTIFICATION The media in EUROPE show more nudity than in the united states Chapter 2 Clitoris- a small, elongated erectile structure in women that develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis Cowper’s Gland- two pea-shaped structures located beneath the prostate gland in men that secrete a few drops of an alkaline fluid prior to orgasm
Hymen- the thin membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening in many sexually inexperienced women G Spot- a small, sensitive area on the front wall of the vagina found in about 10% of women Penis- the male organ for sexual intercourse and the passageway for sperm and urine genitalia, including the mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal opening, urethral opening All men over the age of 50 should have an annual examination to check for cancer of the PROSTATE GLAND In women, the two outer elongated folds of the skin that extend from the mons to the perineum are called LABIA MAJORA? The innermost layer of the uterus, which is sloughed off and discharged from the woman? s body during menstruation is called ENDOMETRIUM In men, an erection results from the spongy tissues of the penis becoming engorged with BLOOD? When a man becomes sexually aroused a few drops of a clear fluid produced by the COWPERS GLANDS may appear at the tip of the penis Breast size in women is determined by the AMOUNT OF FATTY TISSUE The best time for most women to examine their breasts for abnormal lumps is JUST AFTER MENSTRAUTION After sperm travel through the vas deferens, they enter the paired EJACULATORY DUCKS
Most of the fluid in an ejaculation comes from the SEMINAL VESICLES The best time for a man to examine is testicles for abnormal lumps is AFTER A WARM BATH OR SHOWER Two glands that secrete small amounts of alkaline fluid into ducts at the base of the labia mtnora are called BARTHOLINS GLANDS sperm are produced in the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES Both the penis and the CLITORIS have corpora cavernosa The muscle surrounding the vagina and bladder is called the PUBOCOCCYGENUS In women who have a g spot it is located on the FRONT wall of the muscle The pituitary hormone that causes production of milk is PROLACTIN Womens genitalia are ollectively known as the VULVA?
ThiS includes MONS VENERIS, LABIA MAJORIA, LABIA MANORIA, CLITORIS, VAGINAL OPENING, URETHRA OPENING The MON VERERIS and OUTER SURFACE OF LABIA MONERIA are covered with hatr at puberty The CLITORIS has no function other than to focus pleasure, it is most similar to a mans PENIS The LABIA MINORA meet at the top to form the clitoral hood The area between the labia minora is called VESTIBULAR AREA Sexual inexperienced women have a thin membrane called HYMEN One in EIGHT women will get breast cancer sometime in their life A women? s internal reproductive ystem includes the VAGINA, UTERUS, FALLOPIAN TUBES, OVARIES The VAGINA is the depository for sperm, birth canal, and the exit route for menstrual fluids The walls of the inner two thirds of the VAGINA are relatively insensitive to touch When a mature egg is released from an OVARY it is picked up by the FALLOPEAN TUBES which then transports it to the UTERUS The eggs usually implant in the ENDOMETRIUM of the uterus Sexual Response- the physiological response that occurs during sexual arousal Model of Sexual Response- four phases: 1 . excitement 2. plateau 3. orgasm 4. esolution (Masters and Johnson) Three Stage Model- created by Helen Kaplan, desire, excitement, and orgasm (focused more on genital responses) Newer models focus on women? s responses Four Stage Model- excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution Mens Sexual Response Cycle- men have a five stage model: desire, excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution, a man can have a physiological response (erection) without feeling aroused. men? s responses are the same regardless of whether the source or arousal is another person or opposite or same sex. it makes it impossible for men to have another orgasm after they react plateau, it takes a while to build up gain Women? Sexual Response Cycle- women have more of intimacy needs and relationship and less on biological urges. women can have two or more orgasms before falling off the plateau Aphrodisiacs: Do they help? oysters are an aphrodisiac none of these substances have any physiological effect on sexual responsivity temporary improvement in sexual functioning is purely a psychological effect (believing that something will work and can be arousing) effects wear off shortly alcohol is commonly believe to enhance sexual desire and responsivity it is an aphrodisiac, a suppressant of sexual functioning in both men and women ocaine and amphetamines are also ? known? s sexual stimulants drugs improve sexual pleasure men who use marijuana experience erectile problems Desire- specific sensations cause the individual to seek out, or become receptive to sexual experiences Excitement Phase- penis starts to become erect Plateau Phase- cowpers glands secrete a few drops of clear fluid Orgasm Phase- rhythmic muscular contractions occur in outer vagina, uterus, and anal sphincter muscles Resolution Phase- blood drains from breasts, outer third of the vagina, labia minora, and clitoris Vasocongestive Response- clitoris it the most prominent at this time Tissues ecoming filled with blood during sexual arousal is called VASCONGENISTION Some women emit a fluid during orgasm that comes from the URETHRA Most women and man men get a skin rash called the SEX TENSION FLUSH when they becomes highly sexually aroused The engorgement and swelling of the outer third of the vagina was the ORGASMIC A sensitive area that is found on the front wall of the vagina in about 10% of all women G SPOT After ejaculating most men have a period of time called the REFRACTORY PERIOD during which it is impossible for them to have another orgasm Chapter 8
Gender Identity- ones subjective sense of being a man or woman, sense usually acquired by age 3, the inward experience of your gender role Gender Role- a set of culturally specific norms concerning the expected behaviors and attitudes of men and women, everything you feel, think, say and do, the way you express you identity, outward experience of your gender identity Chapter 10 Talking to your children about sex: sexual learning begins in infancy and continues throughout adolescence child’s parents are the most powerful influence on his or her behavioral beliefs only about a third learn a lot about sex from parents t is mostly always the mother taking to the child about sex father’s are notoriously silent and disservice to their child by remaining emotionally distant and appearing to unapproachable on the subject family communication is more likely to occur when their is openness in the house, parents have spoken to their child about personal topics parents should talk about sex with their child because either way they are going to see it on t. or talk about it with their friends and you don’t want them to be misinformed when parents talk about sexual activity or birth control the child is more likely to elay engaging in sexual intercourse and using birth control a parent should never lecture always discuss during a talk about sex your child views you to be askable- being perceived as receptive, a good listener, and accepting- letting your child know that all questions are okay and will not be met with negative attitude do not make your child afraid of sex, it is something good and positive and not something to feel ashamed of or guilty (don’t use scare tactics Early Infancy (0-1) male fetuses have erections months before born hugging and cuddling infants infants touch genitals infants don? omprehend adult sexual behavior Early Childhood (2-6) children increasingly play together interests in boy and girl genitals are common in this age group children tend to undress in front of others, touch other children’s genitals, masturbate, talk about sex young children are interested in physical differences between boys and girls and will most parents respond negatively to finding their young child exploring or touching genitals School Age Years (7-11) freud believed this time of life was latency (not concerned with sexuality) children have developed a sense of modesty and inhibition about undressing in front of thers sexual behavior is hidden more by parents children segregate by age 9 puberty (7-15) children first show sexual attraction and become capable of reproduction adrenal glands start to mature testicles and ovaries mature boys did not ejaculate prior to this time girls did not have menstrual cycles prior to this time secondary sex characteristics: breast development, facial hair Adolescence (13-17) referring to life between adulthood and puberty masturbation is continuous throughout adolescence boys and girls engage more frequently in sexual activity petting: sexual contact below the waist ecking: erotic physical contact about the waist (kissing) first intercourse is usually a romantic relationship that is suppose to last women experience a range of emotions during their first time men have more pleasure and less guilt most teens have experienced sexual regret at least once peer pressure: motivated by desire for acceptance and social status Emerging Adulthood (18-25) median age for marriage is 25 for women and 27 for men this is an extended period of being a single adult more freedom from parents identities to love, work and world views sexually experienced and having sex regularly ultiple sex partners hooking up: non relationship sex serial monogamy: series of relationships in which sex is reserved for one person Young Adulthood (26-39) norm: long lasting monogamy sexual intercourse is high in the first year of marriage parenthood: less privacy couples who live together before getting married are more likely to experience marital instability and get divorced swinging: a married couple has extramarital relationships open marriage: okay to have sex with others Chapter 1 1 depends on age of individual, society an period in which they live changes over lifespan of an individual tatistically normal: large number of people engage in it normal involves a range of values (masturbation) Masturbation self stimulation of one’s genitals semen was believed to contain the essence of life men are more likely to start masturbating before they experience sexual intercourse whereas many woman start after they engage in sexual intercourse men masturbate two or three times more frequently than women perfectly normal to masturbate women masturbate by stimulating the clitoris, labia minora masturbation is a reflection of sexually active lifestyle Sexual Fantasies women are more romantic and emotional en are more explicit and visual imagery replacement fantasy: one images oneself having sex with someone other than sexual partner fantasies in four categories: 1 . exploratory (experiment, never tried before) 2. intimacy (sexual activities with known partner) 3. impersonal sex (sex with strangers or watching other have sex) 4. ominance fantasies are more common in those who have fewest sexual problems most acted out fantasies have been a disappointment Sexually Healthy person someone who feels positively about his or her sexuality doesn’t view sex as naughty, bad, improper eels free to choose whether or not he or she wishes to try a variety of sexual free from pressure socially or by partner freedom from life threatening diseases not healthy if you have engaged in a wide variety of behaviors with numerous partners and have little fulfillment from relations Chapter 12 Theories of Love self disclosure: revealing one’s thoughts, feelings, and emotions to another Attachment Theory of Love three styles: 1 . secure (children learn their parents are a sense of security) 2. anxious ambivalent (children’s parents are inconsistent and this leads to uncertainty and different emotional reactions) 3. oidant (children develop negative attitudes of others because parents neglected them) Robert Sternbergs Triangular Theory three components known as the vertex triangle: intimacy (closeness or bondedness and the experience of warmth) passion (drives leading to physical attraction, sexual relations, and romance) decision/commitment (decision to love another person and commit to maintain the relationship over time all different positive emotions that people can have for others are understood by the three components John Lee’s “Many Colors of Love” other words such as liking, affection, infatuation here is more than one type of partnering love primary colors: eros- highly idealized type of romantic love that is based mainly on physical beauty ludus- self centered type of love, avoid commitment storge- affectionate type of love that grows from friendship secondary colors: pragma- rational or practical type of love, good match mania – type of love characterize by intense emotional dependency on attention and affection of ones love agape- romantic love that puts the interest of the loved person ahead of one’s own, great sacrifice Jealousy emotional state that is perceived threat to a valued relationship or position and otivates behavior aimed at countering threat Chapter 14 Courtship Disorder nonviolent offenses rape four phase sequence: finding phase- locate and appraise a potential sex partner affiliative phase- verbal and non verbal overtures (looking, smiling) tactile phase- physical contact (hugging) copulatory phase- sexual intercourse occurs Fetishism a condition in which sexual arousal occurs primarily when using or fantasizing about inanimate object erotic fetishism- achieving sexual arousal and gratification almost exclusively by handling or fantasizing about an inanimate object articles that have been used and have odor