CH 1-21 Questions

Question Answer
Fires from flammable metals require this type of fire extinguisher D
Rod-shaped bacteria, some of which are endospore forming, are referred to as Bacilli
Beadlike chains of cocci formed after cell division along a single axis are called Streptococci
The causative agent for Lyme disease is a Spirochete
Bacterial replication is accomplished primarily by Binary fission
Fires from combustibles such as wood require this type of fire extinguisher Type A
All of the following are blood borne pathogens in the health care setting except Hepatitis A
Bacteria that use organic compounds as the source of both carbon and energy are referred to as Chemoheterotrophs
Viruses can affect All organisms
Viral capsomeres are composed of sub units called Protomeres
The correct sequence of stages in the multiplication of animal viruses is Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly, release
The mold that produces penicillin is an example of Amensalism
The presence of microbes in or on the body is (a) Contamination
A disease that is generally present in a given population is Endemic
This type of infection in which several infectious agents establish themselves at the same site is referred to as a(n) Mixed infection
Typhoid fever Salmonella
Neisseria gonorrhoea Gonorrhoea
Bordetella pertussis Whooping cough
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii
Gas gangrene Clostridium perfringens
Human papillomavirus Plantar warts
Infectious mononucleosis Epstein-Barr virus
Norovirus Gastroenteritis
Hantavirus Hemorrhagic fever
Human rhinovirus A Common cold
The first step in infection Adhesion
The parenteral route Surgery
Normal flora Microbiota
Multiplication of pathogens in blood Septicemia
Pandemic Aids
Molds belong to which of the following groups of eukaryotic organisms Fungi
Which of the following sites of the human body does not have a normal flora Blood
Which of the following lack nucleic acids Prions
Which of the following diseases is generally caused by contaminated food Shigellosis
Protons are Part of the atomic nucleus
The bond between sodium and chlorine atoms in sodium chloride is a(n) Ionic bond
The unit molecules (monomers) of carbohydrates are Monosaccharides
Cytosine always undergoes complementary base pairing with Guanine
The RNA nucleotide base that pairs with adenine of DNA is Uracil
The cell organelles found only in algae and plant cells are Chloroplast
The structures that can move fluid, mucus, or cells over the surface of a cell are Cilia
The fluid like portion of a cell is referred to as Cytosol
The cell organelle responsible for the packaging of proteins is the Golgi complex
Which of the following organisms produces toxins that target cholesterol Streptococcus pyogenes
The branch of pharmacology that addresses drug amounts at various sites in the body after drug administration is called Pharmacokinetics
The most rapid rate of drug absorption is achieve by ____ administration Intravenous
When drug receptors are maximally activated it is referred to as the Peak effect
The specific antidote to botulinum toxin is Antitoxin
Drugs are excreted from the body primarily via the Kidneys
Used for unfixed, unstained specimens, such as living organisms Dark-field microscopes
Most commonly used to observe sectioned and stained tissues, organs, and microorganisms Bright-field microscopes
Used for the study of living plants and animal cells, microorganisms, and thin tissue slices Phase-contrast microscopes
Used in conjunction with fluorescent stains/dyes Fluorescence microscopes
use beam of electrons rather than light Electron microscopes
Do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound cell organelles, 70s ribosomes, DNA and RNA Prokaryotic cells
Have a nucleus and membrane-bound cell organelles, 80s ribosomes, DNA and RNA Eukaryotic cells
Describe how foodborne diseases can be prevented Washing hands with hot, soapy water before food preparation, after using the bathroom, and after changing diapers
Keeping raw meat, poultry, seafood, and their juices away from prepared, ready-to-eat foods
Refrigerating foods within 2 hours after cooking. Cold temperatures will slow bacterial grow and multiplication
Sufficiently cleaning all surfaces upon which food is to be prepared
The atomic number equals the number of Protons
A chemical bond in which electrons are equally shared is a(n) Nonpolar covalent bond
The outermost shell of an atom can hold up to ___electrons 8
The bond between amino acids is a(n) Peptide bond
Neutrons are particles with a(n) ___ charge Neutral/no
An atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons is called a(n) Isotope
A positively charged ion is a(n) Cation
The breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones in the presence of water is called Hydrolysis
A sharing of electrons; strongest bond Covalent bond
Occurs by transfer of electrons Ionic bonds
Attraction of hydrogen atom of one molecule and an oxygen or nitrogen atom of another molecule Hydrogen bond
Unit molecules of are amino acids Protein
Functions of proteins Membrane proteins: integral and peripheralCan be carrier moleculesEnzymesStructural support
DNA pairing adenine is paired with thymine
The cell organelles responsible for the packaging of proteins are the Golgi complexes
The intracellular fluid has a high concentration of Potassium
What is an active transport mechanism Pinocytosis
Cells without a nucleus are ___ cells Prokaryotic
The sterol-like molecules in bacterial plasma membranes are Hopanoids
A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes is a(n) Lysosomes
The organelle necessary for photosynthesis is a(n) Chloroplasts
respiration 3 pathways: Glucose -> pyruvic acid -> acetyl-CoA -> citric acid -> ATP Aerobic cellular
Eukaryotic cells undergo a sequential series of events between cell division Cell cycle
Four phases of cell cycle are G1, S, G2, and mitosis
Four phases of Mitosis Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase; followed by cytokinesis
Division of the cytoplasm Cytokinesis
OSHA is a division of the U.S. Department of Labor
There are ___ levels of biosafety depending on the organisms handled 4
The biosafety level necessary in water-testing facilities is level 1
Which of the following bacteria should be handled in a biosafety level 2 facility Salmonella
Ebola viruses need to be handled in which of the following biosafety levels BSL-4
Which of the following eyewash/safety showers should be used for immediate flushing only, until the victim reaches another safety unit Personal eyewash
Ergonomic guidelines for nursing homes are issued by OSHA
CDC stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Dangerous and exotic agents need to be handled in a BSL ___ environment Level 4
The type of fire extinguisher used on fires from flammable liquids such as gasoline would be a type ___ extinguisher B
Provides a continuous water flow Emergency shower
Device permanently connected to a source of portable water Plumbed and self-contained eyewash units
Used for immediate flushing Personal Eyewash
Use to irrigate and flush eyes, face, and body areas Hand-held drench hose
Used to irrigate and flush both the face and the eyes Eye/face wash
A shower combined with an eyewash or eye/face wash Combination unit
Name the different blood-borne pathogens that can be a hazard in healthcare settings HBC, HCV, HIV, Ebola and Marburg viruses
Overall shape is spherical or nearly spherical Cocci
Bacilli that are elongated and spherical; e.g., coccobacilli Pleomorphic
Curved or comma-shaped rod spirals Vibrios
Thick, rigid, spiral organisms Spirillum
Thin, flexible spirals Spirochetes
Typically appear in pairs – one plane (2 rows 1 plane) Diplococci
Cocci arranged in 2 planes in squares of four Tetrads
Cocci arranged in cubes of 8 as a result of division of 3 planes Sarcina
Grapelike clusters formed by cell division in random planes Staphylococci
Paired rods that remain in pairs after division Diplobacilli
Fail to separate after they divide and remains in chains Streptobacilli
Bacteria that use oxygen, but only at low concentration are classified as Microaerophiles
Bacteria have to adapt to medium before cell division Lag phase
The rate of growth increases with time; each cell introduced to medium divides by binary fission Logarithmic or exponential growth phase
Occurs when essential nutrients are depleted or byproducts of metabolism accumulate Stationary phase
Begins when growth stops and the number of dead cells is larger than the number of viable cells Death phase
Acquire energy from light Phototrophs
Acquire energy from chemical compounds Chemotrophs
Backbone for all organic compounds Carbon
Obtain carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide Autotrophs
Use carbon from organic compounds Heterotrophs
Uses sunlight as the energy source; use carbon dioxide as their carbon source Photoautotrophs
Use chemical compounds as the source of energy and carbon dioxide Chemoautotrophs
Use sunlight for energy; use organic compounds as carbon source Photoheterotrophs
Use organic compounds for both the source of energy and a carbon source Chemoheterotrophs
Some bacteria can obtain nitrogen from inorganic compounds such as nitrates Nitrogen
Can be met by organic compounds or inorganic slats or sulfates, sulfides, and thiosulfates Sulfur and Phosphorus
Required in trace amounts Minerals
Microorganisms that show optimal growth in moderate temps 25C to 40C Mesophiles
Soil, human body, animals Mesophiles
Heat-loving organisms;temps 45C or higher Thermophiles
Hot springs, deep sea vents, composts, hay stacks Thermophiles
Cold-loving; optimal growth at 15C Psychrophiles (cryophiles)
Optimal growth range of 25C to 30C Psychrotrophs
Causes food spoilage at refrigeration temps Psychrotrophs
A single base is altered; involves the replacement of one base pair with another Point shift mutation
Insertion or deletion of one or more nuceotide pairs Frame shift mutation
Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorfei belong to the group of Spirochetes
Staphylococci and streptococci are best classified in the group of Gram-positive cocci
Which of the following is a host-dependent bacterium Mycoplasma
DNA molecules in bacterial are Plasmids Nonchromosomal
Transmissible spongiform encephalophaties are caused by Prion
Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by human herpes virus number 8

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