ch. 12 animal structure and function

Term Definition
hydrostatic skeleton a fluid filled internal cavity surrounded by muscle tissue
coelom the fluid filled cavity(SEE-lum)
nerve net a net-like control system that sends signals to and from all parts of the body
neuron basic functioning unit of the nervous system
undulation some animals move in a wavelike motion
example: snakes and eels
diffusion is the movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
spiracles tiny holes on the surface of an organism where oxygen enters the body and carbon dioxide leaves the body
example: beetles and spiders
gills are organs that enable oxygen to diffuse into an animal's body and carbon dioxide to diffuse out
example: fish
exchange to transfer
open circulatory system is a system that transports blood and other fluids into open spaces that surround organs in the body
closed circulatory system is a system that transports materials through blood using vessels
crop is a specialized structure in the digestive system where ingested material is stored
gizzard is a muscular pouch similar to a stomach that is used to grind food
absorption is the process in which nutrients from digested food are taken into the body
3 structures for support are? 1. hydrostatic skeleton (ex. earthworm)
2. exoskeleton (ex. crabs and snails)
3. endoskeleton (ex. fish, birds, mammals)
exoskeleton hard outer covering that proviodes support and protection for many invertebrates
endoskeleton a covering that protects internal organs and provides the organism with structure and support like bones or cartilage
nerve cord allows signals to move directly between neurons and the brain (also called spinal cord)
function of the circulatory system is to what? circulatory system and respiratory system work together to supply cells with oxygen and nutrients
3 parts of the circulatory system are? 1. heart
2. blood vessels
3. blood
heart major organ for pumping blood in your body
3 kinds of blood vessels are? 1. arteries
2. veins
3. capillaries
What is the job of the arteries? carry oxygenated blood (red) to and away from the heart
what is the job of the veins? carry deoxygenated blood (blue) to the heart
what is the job of the capillaries? bring food and oxygen to the cells and carry waste away (CO2); they are very small
blood is made up of what 4 things? 1. red blood cells
2. white blood cells
3. platelets
4. plasma
what is the job of red blood cells? carry oxygen and CO2
what is the job of the white blood cells? fight pathogens
what is the job of the platelets? to help clot blood
what is plasma? it is the liquid part of the blood
what is the flow of blood through the body? heart -> arteries -> capillaries -> veins -> back to the heart
what is the function of the respiratory system? exchanges oxygen and CO2 between red blood cells, air and cells (diffusion: High to low)
what are the 7 main parts of the respiratory system? 1. nose
2. mouth
3. pharynx
4. larynx
5. trachea
6. bronchiole tubes
7. alveoli
where is the pharynx found? upper part of the throat
what does the larynx contain? vocal cords
what is the trachea also known as? windpipe
what are the bronchiole tubes? two passageways branching into the lungs
what is the job of the alveoli? tiny air sacs where oxygen and CO2 are exchanged
what is the function of the skeletal system? 1. support your body
2. protects organs
3. allows the body to move
4. makes blood cells
what are the parts of the skeletal system? 1. bones
2. ligaments
3. tendons
4. cartilage
what is the function of the joint? where bones meet and allow for movement
what are 3 types of joints in your body? 1. ball and socket joint (shoulder and hip)
2. hinge joint (elbow)
3. pivot joint (neck)
what is the function of the nervous system? control and coordinate "everything"…all movement and all activities of organs and organ systems
what are the major parts of the nervous system? 1. brain
2. spinal cord
3. neurons
what is the job of the brain? control center of the entire body
what is the job of the spinal cord? carries messages to and from brain
what is the job of the neurons? basic nerve cells that carry messages throughout the body
what is a nerve net? primitive "net like" system sending signals throughout a simple organisms body
what does the nerve net do? helps in movement, detecting food and capuring prey
what organisms would have a nerve net? found in organisms with "no brain"
example: jelly fish, sea star, sea anemones, hydras

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