Ch. 4 Biology Assessment

an increase in the greenhouse effect causes an increase in
a small valley where the average temperature is usually higher than that of the surrounding countryside has its own
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weather is day-to-day in a smaller area, climate is over a whole region and is the average weather for a long period of time
distinguish between weather and climate
precipitation, sun
decribe two primary abiotic factors that produce earth’s major climate zones
the relationship between a tick and its host is an example of
principle that states that no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in exactly the same habitat at exactly the same time
what is the comptetitive exclusion principle
fires, hurricanes, and other natural disturbances can result in
pioneer species
the first organisms to repopulate an area affected by a volcanic eruption called
what type of succession takes place after lava from a volcanic eruption covers an area
hurricanes and fires
describe 2 major causes of ecological succession
primary succession comes from bare rock but secondary has some remnants left behind
explain why secondary succession usually proceeds faster than primary succession
in a tropical rain forest, the dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall trees is called the
a group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
what is a biome
need all water in the area
why are plants generally few and far in the desert
the gradual replacement of species after a natural disaster that make changes to the previous one
whats succession
primary succession
what succession is called ‘bare rock succession’
pioneer species
general term for first into area
climax species
last species where you reach end of succession
relationship where one is neither benefited nor harmed and the other benefits
2 jackels=competition, what kind?
swamps have trees
big difference between marsh and swamp
aphotic zone
region of a lake where light doesn’t reach
what means ‘no light’
generic term for organisms that live in aphotic zone
temperature and precipitation
what do climate diagrams tell you about a place
example from book of keystone species
ability of organism to reproduce and live in wide range of condition in an area
H2O, CO2, methane
3 greenhouse gases
23.5 degrees
how much of tilt is earth at?
what do we have because of earth’s tilt
less than 25 cm. or 10 inches
how much precipitation must any area get to be qualified as desert
what would you hit about 1.5 feet under the tundra
a permanently frozen layer of ice
what is permafrost
phytoplankton (plant) and zooplankton (animal)
2 major types of plankton and groups
intertidal zone
area between high tide and low tide is called
tropical rain forest
which biome has greatest biodiversity out of all
habitat is the general place where an organism lives but a niche describes what it does there and how it reacts with abiotic and biotic factors in the environment
habitat vs. niche
coniferous forest
spruce moose biome
needles, ‘cone bearing’
temperate decidious
where do we live (biome)
maple, beech
our climax trees
the range of physical and biological conditions in which a species lives and the way the species obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce
organisms attempt to use same resources
competition between members of the same species
if two species of bacteria are grown in the same culture, one species will always ___the other
members of the same species tend to ___ resources instead of competing over them
a lion eating a zebra is an example of
a cow eating grass
helps to stablilize the populations of other species in the community
a keystone species is one that
when both benefit
when both benefit
one organism benefits and the other isn’t helped or harmed
one organism benefits and the other isn’t helped or harmed
one organism lives inside or on another organism and harms it
one organism lives inside or on another organism and harms it
a series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
ecological succession
succession that begins in an area with no remnants of an older community
primary succession
secondary succession
when a disturbance changes a community without removing the soil, what type of succession follows
the ecosystem changes over time (especially after disturbances) and different species increase
process of succession in an ecosystem
because soil survives the disturbance
why does secondary succession typically proceed faster than primary succession
the side of a mountain range that faces the wind often receieves more ____ than the downwind side of the same range
that average temperature and precipitation of an area every month
what does a climate diagram summarize
the line symbolizes temperature
the line plot on a climate diagram show
the bars show precipitation
the vertical bars ona climate diagram show
tropical dry forest
warm year-round with wet and dry seasons; rich soil
tropical dry forest
tall, deciduous trees; succulents
tropical dry forest
animals undergo estivation or migration
tropical rain forest
at least 2m of rain per year; not very rich soil
tropical rain forest
active animals all year
tropical rain forest
understory and canopy
grow on brances of tall plants, tropical rain forest
cold, dark winters and short, soggy summers; permafrost
ground-hugging plants
birds and mammals that can tolerate the harsh conditions
temperate grasslands
warm to hot summers; cold winters
temperate grasslands
moderate seasonal precipitation; occasional fires; fertile soil
temperate grassland
grasslands plants, dispersal of seeds by wind is common
temperate grassland
predation=common threat, lots of camoflauge and burrowing
low precipitation with variable temperatures
short growth cycles, cacti
adaptations to quickly lose body heat and regulate body temperature
boreal forest
long cold winters, short mild summers, moderate precipitaition, high humidity; acidic, nutrient-poor soil
boreal forest
boreal forest
animals have trouble keeping warm, must have small extremities, and extra insulation
water’s depth, temperature, flow, amount of dissolved nutrients
4 main factors that affect aquatic ecosystems
how much sunlight will be present
what does the depth of the water determine
photic- photosynthesis can occur, aphotic-photosynthesis can’t occur
difference between photic and aphotic zone
river/stream, lake/pond, and freshwater wetlands
3 main categories of freshwater ecosystems
flowing-water ecosystems originate from underground water sources in
heat, oxygen ,and nutrients
circulating water in lakes and ponds distributes
an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil
filtering pollutnats
freshwater wetlands purify water by
freshwater bogs, freshwater marshes, and freshwater swamps
3 types of freshwater wetlands
a river meets the sea
estuaries form where
less than the salinity of ocean water
the salinity of estuary water is
sunlight to reach the benthos to power photosynthesis
shallow estuaries allow
any relationship in which two species live closely together
earth spins
sun comes up in the
people caused, human caused
loss of habitat
#1 cause of extinction
competition between different species
competition within the same species
no 2 species can occupy the same niche at the same time, same place
Competitvie Exclusion Principle
Celcius (9/5) + 32 = F
how to convert celcius to fahrenheit
live in trees, tree-dwellers
Deciduous plants shed…
like hibernation but during dry season/summer
Tropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland
Lots of migratory animals, grazing herds
Reptiles= dominant group

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