Micronutrients are also known as trace elements and they are present in smaller amounts and are involved in enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure. Examples of micronutrients are manganese, zinc, and nickel.
Macronutrients are required in large quantities and play big roles in cell structure and metabolism, examples of macronutrients are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Essential nutrients are any substance whether an element or molecule that must be provided to an organism.
Differentiate between micronutrients, macronutrients, and essential nutrients.
1) essential to the structure and function of all organisms and viruses
2) used in photosynthesis
3) synthesize amino acids and nucleic acids
4) necessary for metabolism of nutrients by aerobes
5) solvent for metabolic reactions
6) help transfer cellular energy and maintain pH of cells
7) genetic makeup of cells and viruses
8) provides stability to cell membranes
9) energy source
10) form disulfide bonds that shape and stabilize proteins
11) plays a role in protein synthesis and membrane transport
12) participant in membrane actions- maintains osmotic pressure in cells
13) stabilize cell walls – adds resistance to bacterial endospores
14) required for function of membranes, ribosomes, and some enzymes
15) enzyme cofactor, regulates eukaryotic genetics
16) essential element for the structure of respiratory proteins
List the general functions of the essential bioelements in the cell.
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an organic compound that cannot be synthesized by an organism and must be provided as a nutrient. examples are amino acids, nitrogenous base, or vitamins.
Define Growth factors and give examples of them
metallic ions are examples of inorganic nutrients, which help with autotrophs getting their carbon source and energy.
name some functions of metallic ions in cells
Autotrophs require inorganic nutrients it uses inorganic CO2 as its carbon source. Heterotrophs require inorganic and organic nutrients and it must obtain carbon in an organic form.
Compare autotrophs and heterotrophs with respect to the form of carbon-based nutrients they require
the prokaryotes survive totally on inorganic substances such as minerals
Chemoautotrophic bacteria play an important part in recycling inorganic nutrients and elements.
Describe the nutritional strategy of two types of chemoautotrophs described in the chapter.
chemoautotrophs survive totally on inorganic substances such as minerals. They require neither light nor organic nutrients in any form. They remove electrons from inorganic substrates and combine them with carbon dioxide and hydrogen. This reaction gives off simple organic molecules and the amount of energy to drive the synthetic processes of the cell.
Chemoheterotrophs derive both carbon and energy from organic compounds. Processing these organic molecules by respiration or fermintation releases energy that is stored as ATP.
compare chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs as to carbon and energy sources and other unique strategies they may have
Saprobes feed primarily on organic detritus from dead organisms. Parasites derive nutrients from the cells or tissues of a host.
What are the main differences between saprobes and parasites?
nutrients and energy sources, temperature, gas content, water, salt, pH, radiation, and other organisms.
-gases: the admosphere is a reservoir for oxygen, CO2, and nitrogen essential to living processes
-sunlight provides basic source of energy for most organisms. Photosynthesizers use it directly to produce organic nutrients that feed other organisms. Nonphotosynthetic organisms extract the energy from chemical reactions to power cell processes.
-complex communities of microbes exist in nearly every place on earth, they must associate physically and share the habitat, often establishing biofilms and other interrelationships.
– microbes are the most adaptable organisms with regard to pH
– nutrients are constantly being formed by decomposition and sythesis and released into the environment. Many inorganic nutrients originate from non-living environments such as air, water, and bedrock
Describe the major environmental factors to which microbes must adapt for survival
nutrition is a process by which chemical substances called nutrients are required from the environment and used in cellular activities such as metabolism and growth. The subcategories for need and quantity are macronutrients and micronutrients.
Define nutrition and nutrients and their subcategories based on need and quantity
organic nutrients are molecules that contain a basic framework of carbon and hydrogen. Inorganic nutrient is composed of an element or elements other than carbon and hydrogen.
Differentiate between organic and inorganic nutrients
Many inorganic nutrients originate from non-living environments such as the water, air, and bedrock. The different types of bioelements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphate, potassium, nitrogen, sulfur, calcium, iron,sodium, chlorine, magnesium.
Discuss the origins, types, and functions of bioelements and nutrients
A heterotroph is an organism that must obtain its carbon in organic form.
Autotrophs are organisms that use inorganic CO2 as its carbon souce
– phototrophs photosynthesize
-chemotrophs gain energy from chemical compounds
–Methanogens are a type of chemoautotroph
–saprobes are chemoheterotrophs and are free living microorganisms that feed primarily on organic detritus from dead organisms
–Parasites are chemoheterotrophs and they derive nutrients from the cells or tissues of a host.
Describe the main categories of nutritional types among organisms
-photoautotrophs are photosynthetic. they capture the energy of light rays and transform it into chemical energy that can be used in cell metabolism. photosynthesis relies on special pigments to collect the light and uses the energy to convert CO2 into simple organic compounds. Oxygenic photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and uses chlorophyll as the primary pigment. Carbohydrates are formed from this reaction and can be used by the cell to synthesize other cell components. Anoxygenic photosynthesis uses bacteriochlorophyll as its pigment, it gives off elemental sulfur as one product.
– chemoautotrophs survive on inorganic substances such as minerals. they dont require light or organic nutients. They
Distinguish different types of autotrophs and their energy sources
growth factor
An organic nutrient essential to an organisms metabolism that cannot be synthesized itself is termed a
in inorganic environmental reservoir
the source of the necessary elements of life is
an organism that can synthesize all its required organic components from CO2 using energy from the sun is a
an obligate halophile requires high
minerals and CO2 alone
chemoautotrophs can survive on
inorganic nutrients
what is required for all organisms
a pathogen would most accurately be described as a
requires a gradient
passive transport
lose water
a cell exposed to a hypertonic environment will _________ by osmosis
the expenditure of ATP
active transport of a substance across a cell membrane requires
at refrigerator temperatures
psychrophiles would be expected to grow
release of genetic material
is not involved in quorum sensing
superoxide ion is toxic to strict anaerobes because they lack
generation time
the time required for a cell to undergo binary fission is called the
colony, cell
in a viable plate count, each ________ represents a ________ from the sample population
log phase
the stage in population growth with the highest rate of cell division is the

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