Change Management Essay


Many defects can be found with the classical attack. the birth of which is widely accredited to Fredrick Taylor. in peculiar how employees became acrimonious and angry with the degrees of “managerial thuggery” ( Rose 1988 ) that Taylor promoted. There already existed high degrees of worker-management struggle. and Taylors approach simply heightened the tensenesss that it had set out to undertake.

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Deems taylors view. and subsequently. Henri Fayol’s position of how an administration could be managed entirely focused on the productiveness of the worker and how expeditiously work could be carried out. It did non take into history the morale of employees or any of their emotional demands. ensuing in a work force which became progressively dissatisfied with their working environment.

Mayo and Maslow developed an attack which was more emphatic on the direction of worker morale and leading instead than simply sing employees as “greedy robots” ( Rose 1988 ) . This theory. which would germinate into what is known as the Human Relations attack to direction. was focused on the idea that a happy and satisfied employee was a more productive employee.

Classical APPROACH.

The classical attack to organizational direction ( 1900-1930 ) emerged from the Industrial Revolution and was born out of a necessity to replace the “trial and error” attack. which was prevailing prior to this. with a more focussed and consistent attack to how an administration should be managed. This new attack was focused on the efficiency of an administration and in bettering the public presentation and end product of its employees. The classical attack can be divided into three chief countries. scientific direction. bureaucratism and administrative direction. . ( _Managing Change. Bernard Burnes ) _

Fredrick Taylor ( 1856-1917 ) viewed the direction of administrations production efficiency as a scientific discipline and he is accredited with being the male parent of scientific direction. Deems taylors position was that there was “one best way” to execute a undertaking and his attack focused on interrupting down each undertaking so that it could be performed in the most efficient manner. His research was to a great extent influenced by the surveies of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth ( 1914 ) . While Taylor was determined to cut down the clip it took to finish a undertaking. the Gilbreths tried to cut down the figure of gestures taken to finish a undertaking. Taylor’s sentiment was that “_human existences are predisposed to seek the maximal wages for the minimal effort”_ _ ( Taylor 1911 ) _ and to antagonize this. directors must closely oversee workers to guarantee that each predefined measure in a undertaking is carried out right.

By interrupting down each work procedure into smaller undertakings controlled by the direction. the cognition required by workers about the work procedure is reduced. Workers become mere “cogs” in the machine that is the administration. and can easy be replaced. as minimal preparation of a replacing worker is required. This in bend increases the directions control as the workers no longer hold a monopoly of cognition about the work procedure and can non utilize their cognition as a bargaining tool. Taylor. like the Gilbreths. believed that in order to increase a workers’ productiveness. he should be motivated by pecuniary wagess for the sum of work he carries out.

“_When a of course energetic adult male works for a few yearss beside a lazy 1. the logic of the state of affairs is unanswerable ‘Why should I work hard when that lazy fellow gets the same wage that I do and does merely half as much work? ’ “ ( Taylor 1911 ) _

While Taylor and the Gilbreths were focused on bettering the productiveness of single workers at undertaking degree. Henri Fayol ( 1841-1925 ) with the administrative attack. was focused on efficiency at organizational degree. exceed down every bit opposed to bottom up ( Fayol. 1949 ) . Fayols rules of administration are ; division of work. authorization. subject. integrity of bid. integrity of way. subordination of single involvement to general involvements. wage. centralisation. scalar concatenation. order. equity. stableness of term of office of forces. enterprise. and esprit de corps. ( Mullins. 1989:201-3 ) .

Max Weber ( 1864-1924 ) developed the theory of bureaucratic direction which. likewise to Fayols attack. was focused on the overall construction of an administration. Harmonizing to Weber a bureaucratism must hold a figure of distinguishable features. It must hold a hierarchal concatenation of bid. where each employer is answerable to a superior. hence power flows from the top down. Division of labor. where each undertaking is broken down into smaller undertakings. with different employees working on each separate portion of the undertaking. Each employee is selected on virtue and making merely with no prejudice shown to front-runners. Formalised and detailed regulations and ordinances must be set out.

Human RELATIONS Approach

The beginnings of the Human Relations attack can be traced back to surveies on worker weariness which were carried out while the scientific attack was still being established. and it is just to state that both attacks overlap. Elton Mayo ( 1880-1949 ) expanded on these surveies in the 1930’s. most notably with his Hawthorn experiments. ( _Managing Change. Bernard Burnes ) _

Mayo did non believe that workers were merely concerned by pecuniary wagess. but alternatively suggested that by holding their societal demands met at work they would in bend be more motivated and their public presentation would better. In his experiments he divided workers into groups and studied how their productiveness responded to alterations in the environment such as lighting and working conditions. To his surprise the declining on the job conditions did non take to worker productiveness worsening. in fact productiveness increased. This led him to reason that workers motive was increased by better communicating. as the workers were consulted with anterior to. and throughout the experiments. It was besides concluded that workers performed better when they were in a squad. and when they were having greater attending from their directors.

( _http: //tutor2u. net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories. htm_ )

Abraham Maslow ( 1908 – 1970 ) developed a direction theory which is referred to as Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. as shown below.

( image. hypertext transfer protocol: //chebri. com/commitment-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-and-herzberg-theory-of-hygiene-motivation-in-business/ )

Maslow believed that in order for a individual to concentrate on the higher demands. first his lower. more basic demands must to be satisfied. He argued that one time a person’s lowest degree physiological and safety demands are met ; the higher degree needs become more of import to them. For illustration in a direction state of affairs the physiological demands of an employee are things like equal tiffin interruptions and sufficient rewards. The safety demands are met when a safe working environment is provided. Social demands are satisfied when there is a sense of community in the on the job environment. The esteem demands of employees are the demands for acknowledgment from higher-ups for work carried out and accomplishments. Self Actualisation is the demand of an employee to make their full potency. this demand alterations. as different degrees of potency are met the employee so needs to achieve a higher degree.

. ( _http: //www. netmba. com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/_ _ ) _

Douglas McGregor ( 1906-1964 ) stated that there are fundamentally two types of director. one who had a negative position of his employees and the other who had a more positive position. In his construct he called the negative position Theory X. and the positive one Theory Y. Theory X assumes that employees do non like work. and a menace of penalty is required to guarantee that they perform to required criterions. It is besides of the premise that workers do non hold any aspiration and will avoid duty ; they are chiefly interested in security.

Theory X could be used to depict the Classical attacks to direction. Theory Y directors on the other manus take the human dealingss attack and presume that work is natural to people and can be a beginning of satisfaction to them. Theory Y directors believe that workers will seek duty and are motivated to run into ends. McGregor believed that directors who adapted the Theory X attack created an environment where workers were merely motivated by fiscal or material addition. whereas Theory Y directors created a workplace where employees were more responsible and more willing to lend. McGregor came to the decision that administrations needed to accommodate the attack set out in Theory Y. which is basically the human dealingss approach_ . _

_ ( Burnes. Managing Change ) _


For the intent of this essay extended research was carried out on the attacks that modern industries take sing direction. Information gathered from an interview with an employee of ESB Ireland. an electricity provider which is one of the largest employers in Ireland. gave a alone penetration into how this peculiar administration continues to set into consequence many aspects of the human dealingss attack.

Eoghan. who is employed as an electrical applied scientist. provided certification and described how at the beginning of each twelvemonth wholly employees have a one to one meeting with their director to discourse and hold upon ends which they so attempt to accomplish throughout the twelvemonth. The employee is provided with counsel from their director sing the work processes on a uninterrupted footing. The diagram shown below. which is taken from the ESB’s public presentation and development papers. illustrates how formal and informal communicating between director and employee is seen as indispensable and is maintained throughout the twelvemonth.

_ ( Performance and Development Document ESB 2014 ) _

Coaching is besides provided on a one to one footing with employees when it is required.

_”Coaching is a proved agencies. carried out in a confidential mode. by which more single potency can be unlocked to accomplish higher degrees of calling and concern performance”_

_ ( ESB Performance and Development Document 2014 ) _

Through researching a instance survey carried out on edifice stuffs group CRH. similar attacks to public presentation direction were identified. The CRH attack to public presentation direction is broken down into three countries which are about indistinguishable to those taken at ESB. these are ; be aftering. coaching and reviewing.

As is the instance at ESB the work procedures are carefully structured and discussed with the employee in the planning phase. Coaching is besides carried out for each employee’s particular needs which in bend additions knowledge and improves communicating. In the reappraisal phase each employee is assessed separately and given the chance to react to feedback.

_”Self-assessment. aggregation of information. assessment and a reappraisal run intoing all thrust public presentation improvement”_

_ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. business2000. ie/pdf/pdf_10/crh_10th_ed. pdf ) _

CRH are of the position that it is indispensable that employees are capable of working on their ain enterprise or as portion of a squad. as they province in their campaigner demands that campaigners must hold ;

_”Ability to work on ain enterprise and as portion of a team_

_Ability to analyze state of affairss and develop advanced solutions_

_Problem work outing ability”_

_ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. business2000. ie/pdf/pdf_4/crh_4th_ed. pdf ) _


It’s understood that the most of import plus of any administration is its employees. and seeking to retain the services of these employees. The classical attack to direction does non take this into history and alternatively is entirely concerned with increasing productiveness and pull outing the maximal labor from its workers. It can be argued that the classical attack additions productiveness and raises the end product of each employee ; nevertheless. in the long tally it does non take to a satisfied and contented work force. This attack is dated when it comes to the fast paced concern environment that exists today. In most modern workplaces it is indispensable that workers are capable of working on their ain enterprise and doing of import determinations themselves. the classical attack to direction does nil to advance or foster these accomplishments. and in fact it discourages them.

The classical school of idea is that there is “one best way” for all administrations to be structured and operate _ ( Burnes. 2004 ) _. nevertheless. as established through this research. the attack that ESB takes disproves this theory. as each employee is treated as an person and encouraged to supply sentiment on how the work procedure should be structured and best performed.

The meetings and one to one contact with directors gives the employee a clear apprehension of what is expected of him and improves communicating between the employee and direction. which is one of the nucleus facets of the Human Relations Approach. These initial meetings every bit good as the counsel which is provided throughout twelvemonth to the employee by ESB direction is clearly influenced by Mayo’s decisions following the Hawthorn experiments that employee morale and public presentation increased with better communicating and anterior audience to the work procedure. _ ( Burnes. 2004 ) . _

The coaching Sessionss which are provided at ESB aid to better accomplishments and assurance in employees every bit good as supplying direction with the confidence that their workers are competent and executing to a high criterion. This type of attack to coaching and uninterrupted betterment and acquisition is in direct contrast to the ideals of the Classical Approach. and peculiarly to Fredrick Taylors.

Taylor believed in cut downing employee’s cognition about the work procedure instead than promoting acquisition and apprehension. By cut downing the workers knowledge he believed that direction had a greater control over their employee’s ( _Burnes. Pull offing Change ) . _ The position taken by ESB is wholly different. as they believe that the more skilled and confident that an employee becomes. the greater an plus to the administration he will be. By supplying preparation and coaching to employees ESB are puting in human capital. which means the more skilled an employee becomes the greater his economic value is to ESB_ . _

_ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. investopedia. com/terms/h/humancapital. asp ) _

There is a quotation mark from CRH that appears in the instance survey which was researched which proves that their administration embodies about every facet of the Human Relations attack ;

_”The challenge for CRH is to be a Group that attracts and retains people_

_not merely because it is an industry leader but besides because it provides a_

_culture and working environment which creates chances for all_

_employees to turn personally and professionally. ”_

_ ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. business2000. ie/pdf/pdf_4/crh_4th_ed. pdf ) _

Tesco. hypertext transfer protocol: //businesscasestudies. co. uk/tesco/developing-appropriate-leadership-styles/leadership-styles. html # axzz3JGcBkQ5Y


hypertext transfer protocol: //iosrjournals. org/iosr-jbm/papers/Vol14-issue6/A01460105. pdf? id=7380

hypertext transfer protocol: //education-portal. com/academy/lesson/frederick-taylor-theories-principles-contributions-to-management. hypertext markup language

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/1911taylor. asp

hypertext transfer protocol: //tutor2u. net/business/gcse/people_motivation_theories. htm

hypertext transfer protocol: //chebri. com/commitment-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-and-herzberg-theory-of-hygiene-motivation-in-business/

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. netmba. com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/

_http: //www. business2000. ie/pdf/pdf_4/crh_4th_ed. pdf_


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