When a tunnel is built between two states there are a batch of benefits for both states. There will be economical additions as it increases touristry and concern for both states. Both states will besides profit from a stronger political relationship. Furthermore the societal barriers will be broken as people from both states will be more accustomed to each other ‘s civilizations. The success of such a undertaking will besides be good on a wider graduated table as it encourages the remainder of the continent to work on similar undertakings.
The chief issues addressed in this study are: a ) technology, B ) economical, societal, political, and sustainability issues. The three tunnels that will be compared are the Channel tunnel, Frejus Road tunnel and Hsuehshan tunnel. The Channel tunnel and the Frejus Road Tunnel both run through two states, hence societal and political impacts will be compared. The Channel Tunnel and the Hsuehshan Tunnel are built under H2O ; the technology troubles to build the tunnels will be compared. Besides the sustainability of all three tunnels will be compared.
Construction for the Channel tunnel started in France when burrowing began in 1988. However the thought was foremost proposed by Albert Mathieu-Favier in 1802. This was the first of many efforts to build the tunnel between Britain and France. The attractive force of these proposals was the fact that Britain would hold a stronger connexion with the remainder of Europe. These proposals were so dismissed due to the dainties it posed to the state. However in 1955 Great Britain was decided that there was no menace to construct the tunnel.
Engineering facets of Channel tunnel
The Channel tunnel is constructed in chalk marl stratum. The advantages of building the tunnel in chalk stratum are the fact that the stuffs are easy accessible and the chalk marl stuff is impermeable. The Channel tunnel consists of two tunnels which are both 7.6m diameter. A 3rd tunnel which is used for serving has 4.8m diameter ( A.R.BIGGART et al, 1992 ) . Having two tunnels allows enables operations to travel swimmingly and besides allows care to travel on in one tunnel. In add-on in the instance of exigency the tunnel which is non affected can be used as an exigency issue.
Besides in instance of serious exigency conditions in both tunnels the service tunnel can be used as an exigency issue. The service tunnel will besides be used to assist with care in both tunnels. The service tunnel was besides used to transport out land conditions during the building of the Channel tunnel ( G.S Crighton et al 1992 ) .
The Channel tunnel has five pumping Stationss which are used to roll up and pump ooze H2O whilst besides being used as a barrier to leakage H2O ( A.R. BIGGART et Al, 1992 ) . In order to keep the tunnel the pumping Stationss have to be run symmetrically around the tunnel this will let plants to go on even if one side of the pump is defective.
During the building of the Channel tunnel the biggest job was the face stableness. Despite the attempts to brace the tunnel face it became unstable. Therefore to get the better of these job decreases were made. However the job still persisted which led them to utilize a two metre profligate which was used to organize a buttress face that slopes which finally solved the job ( I.C.D Fugeman ) .
Political issues of the Channel Tunnel
Since the Channel tunnel was linking Britain and France both the British and Gallic authoritiess were involved in this undertaking. France ab initio proposed the thought of building a tunnel and Britain were more doubting about the thought of building a tunnel. However the tunnel would hold a great impact on the economic system of both states and because the undertaking was reciprocally good to both states the understanding was made.
The building of the tunnel took topographic point at a clip when Margret Thatcher was in office. During this clip a figure of public sector industries were privatised. Therefore both the British and Gallic Governments decided to privatize the direction and building of the tunnel. This meant that both authoritiess would non be passing taxpayer ‘s money to fund the undertaking. Therefore if any jobs occurred during building there would be no strain or fiscal differences.
The building and direction of the tunnel was carried out by Eurotunnel. Due to the determination to privatize the undertaking Eurotunnel was wholly responsible for financing the undertaking. Therefore both states had no farther engagement in any jobs which would hold occurred during building.
Frejus Road Tunnel
The Frejus route tunnel is 12.87km long and it connects France and Italy through the Alps it is a two lane route tunnel. The diameter of the tunnel is 7.4m on the Gallic side and the breadth inside the tunnel is 10m. The intent of the tunnel was to cut the going clip between France and Italy through the Alps, the Frejus route tunnel is one of few tunnels which provide a path through the Alps.
The building of the tunnel took six old ages building started in 1974 and it was completed in 1980. The tunnel was constructed by utilizing drill and blast method. The tunnel is used by the general populace and it ‘s besides used to transport goods from Italy to France and frailty versa. Both France and Italy will derive from the Frejus route tunnel as it offers a more cost effectual manner to transport goods.
During the building of the Frejus route tunnel the chief job was slope stabilization. When building a tunnel in location with complex environment incline stabilization is one of the major obstructions in the undertaking. In order to bind the heap retaining wall a DIYWIDAG multistrand ground tackle was used. The chief complication to this procedure was the specification of the bond lengths. It was n’t possible to find the bond which would be suited for the deepness of the stone beds before the boring took topographic point. Therefore the clip for the fiction and installing was cut short to three yearss. To work out this peculiar job all the ground tackles were prefabricated in a location near the site.
The tunnel was constructed by a Gallic company SFTRF the company besides manages the tunnel along with an Italian company SITAF. The tunnel is owned by SFTRF and operations and care are carried out by SITAF. The political dealingss between France and Italy were already strong since it ‘s non the first clip a tunnel was constructed between both states.
Comparison between Channel tunnel and Frejus Road tunnel
One of the chief similarities between the two tunnels is the economical benefits that both undertakings bring. The Channel tunnel has benefited both France and Britain since it provides a much cheaper agencies of transporting goods into both states. The Frejus route tunnel has benefited both France and Italy in similar manner. Even though it is n’t the lone tunnel that connects Italy and France the demand for a short journey through the Alps is high.
Another similarity between the web sites is the fact that it strengthened the political dealingss of the states. The Channel tunnel was the first tunnel to link Britain and France which was seen as a major landmark in bettering political dealingss. The Frejus route tunnel besides shows the continued strength in political dealingss between France and Italy.
One the other manus a major difference between the tunnels is the geological differences in the tunnels are built. The channel tunnel is built in chalk marl, whereas the Frejus route tunnel is built in metamorphous stones. The attack to building the tunnels was besides different as the Channel tunnel was built under the English Channel and the Frejus route tunnel was built in the Alps.
The Hsuehshan tunnel a route tunnel in Taiwan that connects Taipei and Ilan. The tunnel is about 12.9km long two chief tunnels run through it with an extra pilot tunnel ( Politecnico di Torino, 2004 ) . Once the tunnel was opened in 2006 it became the 5th longest tunnel in universe and the longest tunnel in Asia.
The chief intent for building this tunnel was to cut down the journey clip between the capital Taipei and Ilan which is in East Taiwan. The journey clip was reduced from about two and a half hours to merely half hr. This benefits Taiwan economically in many different ways from nest eggs in transit cost to increase in touristry to Taiwan.
Engineering facets of Hsuehshan tunnel
The building procedure for the Hsuehshan tunnel started in 1991 and it took 15 old ages for completion. There were a figure of major accidents in the building procedure which resulted in terrible holds to the overall completion ( K.T.Chang et al, 2008 ) .
The building for the Hsuehshan tunnel was contracted to RSEA. For the first clip in the history of Taiwan a TBM ( Tunnel Boring Machine ) was used to build the tunnel ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Similar to the Frejus route tunnel a major obstruction for the building of the tunnel was the trouble with the geology. Although the geology was precisely the same as the Frejus route tunnel the jobs were similar. The tunnel cuts through the Hsuehshan mountain scope with the deepest overburden every bit much as 720m ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Rock formation is badly fractured and they contain immense militias of land H2O. To get the better of the troubles with the geology a combination of both TBM and D & A ; B ( Drill and Blast ) methods were used.
The pilot tunnel which is located in the Hsuehshan tunnel is an of import portion of the tunnel. It is really utile in footings of operational and care work every bit good as supplying an exigency issue ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . During the building of the Hsuehshan tunnel it was used to transport stuff and it ‘s still used for care plants. The pilot tunnel is besides used for exigency intents.
The societal and economical effects of the tunnels
At the clip when the Channel tunnel was being constructed in 1986 the unemployment rate was about 11 % in Kent, at the same clip the unemployment rate was similar at 13 % in Nord-pas de Calais ( Watson, Kathy, 1987 ) . The economic system in Kent relied chiefly on agribusiness and the building of the tunnel would hike the employment rate. On the other manus the building of the tunnel was more important to the economic system of Nord-pas de Calais industrial based, at that clip it was sing diminution ( Biggart, et Al, 1989 ) .
During the building of the tunnel the local communities of both Kent and Nord-pas de Calais were non badly affected. This was due to the fact that both metropoliss were non urbanised at the clip which meant that they did non hold to be relocated during the building procedure ( Clement, Rebecca, 2006 ) . However the expected rise in employment did non make the degrees ab initio expected as lone half of the workers employed were from Kent ( Patterson, B et al 1992 ) .
The entire cost of the building for the Channel tunnel was expected to be in the part of ?4Bn. However the overall cost at the terminal of the building finally rose to ?9.5Bn ensuing in the undertaking to be over budget by ?4.5Bn ( Anguera Recard, 2006 ) . Some of the grounds for the undertaking traveling over budget were as a consequence of machine failures which caused holds. However the chief grounds for the undertaking bing more than double the monetary value ab initio predicted was the alteration in statute law on the environmental and safety ( Anguera, Recard, 2006 ) .
In Taiwan the Hsuehshan tunnel had a great impact on both the societal and economical development of Taiwan. In order to increase the development of East Taiwan it was indispensable that the travel clip was cut down ( ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Therefore the Hsuehshan tunnel was an built-in portion of the success of Taiwan and it became a authorities policy ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) .
Sustainability and environmental facets
When constructing big substructures such as the Hsuehshan tunnel in the present twenty-four hours and age planning and design work has to be carried out exhaustively. The serviceableness of tunnels such as the Hsuehshan tunnel is considered to last over centuries. Therefore some of the design work is carried decennaries before the completion of the undertaking. In the instance of the Hsuehshan tunnel, methods antecedently used for diggings in Taiwan had to be overlooked in favor of the TBM the environmental deductions were considered as portion of the choice procedure ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Although the environment deductions were considered by and large it is n’t a precedence in Taiwan. In a 2005 environmental sustainability table Taiwan were ranked 145th out of 146 states ( Environmental sustainability study, 2005 ) .
On the other manus sustainability and environmental facets were more important to both France and Italy. France is graded 36th in the tabular array and Italy are ranked 69th ( Environmental sustainability study, 2005 ) . This indicates that during the building of the Frejus route tunnel both states would hold tougher statute laws than Taiwan. The importance of the environment and sustainability is besides influenced by the EU since both France and Italy are members. The fact that five European states are in the top 10 in this tabular array compared to no Asiatic state shows that there is a difference in behavior.
The UK is ranked fortieth on the sustainability tabular array which indicates that the attack to sustainability issues is similar to France. The Channel tunnel was besides capable to tougher environmental demands compared to the Hsuehshan tunnel. Due to alterations in statute law on the environment the entire cost increased well ( Anguera, Recard, 2006 ) . There were a figure of steps taken the overall pollution caused when building the Channel tunnel. One manner of cut downing the pollution degrees was to curtail the transit times of stuffs to the site ( Clement, Rebecca, 2006 ) .
Even though the Taiwan ranked unusually low on the sustainability tabular array in 2005 betterments were made in 2006. The Environment public presentation index ranks Taiwan in 24th place ( Environmental Performance Index, 2006 ) . Although attempts are being made by Taiwan to better on the environmental measures the tabular array besides shows that France, the UK and Italy are all ranked in higher places ( Environmental Performance Index, 2006 ) . Looking at the table premises can be made that future buildings of a similar tunnel would be more expensive in Taiwan if they want to better the environmental policies.
Fire and safety steps
It is perfectly critical to hold the right safety substructure to cover with an exigency in a tunnel. The most of import facet of the exigency measures in a tunnel will be covering with fire. When a fire does happen in a tunnel it is really of import to hold proper processs to cover with the fire. The Hsuehshan tunnel in Taiwan is classified as an AA tunnel due to the length of the tunnel, which means that it ‘s required to with trade with all kinds of catastrophes ( K.T. Chang et Al, 2008 ) . The tunnel therefore has a pilot tunnel which is used as an exigency issue in the instance of a fire. During the building of the tunnel 25 workers lost their lives as a consequence of accidents.
The Frejus route tunnel and the Channel tunnel have both experient fire catastrophes in the yesteryear. The Frejus route tunnel had experienced the catastrophe in 2005when a truck caught fire, there were two casualties as a consequence. Furthermore the tunnel had to stay closed after the catastrophe occurred which resulted in major breaks for transit from Turin to Lyon. Since the fire there have been major betterments in the fire protection of the tunnel. The ‘Safe T ‘ undertaking which has been funded by the EU has outlined a figure of criterions which have to be followed. Since 2005 there have been major plants in route tunnels all across Europe to better on the safety processs such as exigency lighting and flight paths ( F.Clement, 2010 ) .
The fire in the Channel tunnel occurred in 1996 with the existent cause of the fire is unknown. There were no deceases reported as a consequence of the fire nevertheless the harm caused by the fire was tremendous however. The fiscal loss incurred was as a consequence of the fire damaging the tunnel straight and indirectly the closing of the tunnel. The Channel tunnel has a figure of steps to cover with fire inside the tunnel one method is to observe and another method is to provide fire contending H2O to the tunnel ( Kirkland, Halcrow Consulting Engineers ) . Since the Channel tunnel connects France and the UK it is besides regulated under European statute law. The ‘Safe T ‘ would hence besides act upon the fire protection steps being used in the Channel tunnel.
Since fire in tunnels can hold a major affect on tunnels its key that the right processs are in topographic point. All the tunnels have experienced jobs with wellness and safety in different ways. Preventing catastrophes could turn out to be impossible but when the right steps are in topographic point it could do a important difference. A figure of steps such as holding a pilot tunnel for emptying will let people to get away. Other steps such as regular hazard appraisals will guarantee that there are no major mistakes which could decline the harm caused.
After analyzing the three tunnels it becomes apparent that they have similarities in footings of the use of the tunnel, building and jobs with safety. However there are besides differences in footings of location, geology and societal benefits. Each tunnel illustrates the significance a tunnel has on the communities straight affected and the larger population who will besides profit from it.
There are a figure of differences in the three tunnels such as the policies on the environment. Both the Frejus route tunnel and the Channel tunnel have similar attacks to sustainability and environmental issues. This is apparent in the superior France, Italy and the UK received from both the sustainability public presentation tabular array and the environmental public presentation tabular array. The Hsuehshan tunnel on the other manus was constructed with far less thought on sustainability.
The Hsuehshan tunnel and the Frejus route tunnel had similar jobs with the geology of both locations. The Channel tunnel on the other manus was easier in that regard with a softer Chalk marl geology. The Frejus tunnel was slippery in footings of building because it ‘s located in the Alps. Whereas the Hsuehshan tunnel was hard to build due to the figure of mistakes that occurred in the stones. Although the tunnels were constructed successfully all three of the tunnels suffered terrible holds.
There are besides a figure of similarities in the three tunnels as they all have a positive economical consequence on the people in the countries. The Frejus route tunnel and the Hsuehshan tunnel are both used as route tunnels for the general populace. However since both tunnel cut the traveling clip it besides benefits concerns as they will cut the transit costs. The Frejus route tunnel cuts the transit costs from Italy to France and frailty versa, while the Hsuehshan tunnel does the same for Taipei and East Taiwan.
Besides the economical benefits the tunnels besides provide societal benefits and stronger political dealingss. The Channel tunnel has improved the political dealingss between the UK and France sing the concerns over state menace it might convey. Although the Frejus route tunnel is non the lone tunnel that connects France and Italy it does hold societal benefits for Turin and Lyon in peculiar. The Hsuehshan tunnel is non connected to another state nevertheless the tunnel would do an betterment in societal dealingss between the people in Taipei and East Taiwan.
All the tunnels besides faced catastrophe which in the instances of the Frejus route tunnel and the Hsuehshan tunnel has resulted in decease. In both the Frejus route tunnel and the Channel tunnel the catastrophe was caused by fire. However in the Hsuehshan tunnel the jobs occurred during the building and as a consequence 25 workers died. Due to the catastrophes holds and closings resulted in a fiscal loss.