Chapter 1-5 Test

Question Answer
A way of thinking correctly for oneself that successfully leads to the most reliable answers to questions and solutions to problems critical thinking
What is the Latin word for science? Scire
What does Scire mean? to know
A method of investigating nature — a way of knowing about nature that discovers reliable knowledge about it Science
What has a high chance of being true because it has been verified by a reliable method Reliable Knowledge
What are the 3 tools of science? evidence, logical reasoning, and skepticism
What are the two types of sciences? Observational and Experimental
What do scientist do in observational science? investigators do not assign treatments to subjects
What do scientist do in experimental science? investigators assign treatment to subjects
Why do scientists measure? to make predictions / judgements / and decisions
What is an informed, testable, and predictive solution to a scientific problem that explains a natural phenomenon, process, or event? Scientific hypothesis
What is a hypothesis that has passed it tests and its predictions have been verified? Corroborated hypothesis
What is a highly corroborated hypothesis that has been so repeatedly tested and for which so much reliable evidence exists that it would be perverse or irrational to deny? Scientific Fact
What is a unifying and self-consistent explanation of fundamental natural processes of phenomena that is totally constructed of corroborated hypotheses? Scientific Theory
True or False? A theory is not a beginning– it is a thoroughly tested final product. True
What is the Scientific Method? Make observations –> Question –> Hypothesis–> Predictions –> Test (experiment or additional observation)
If a test does not support the hypothesis what should you do? revise the hypothesis and pose a new one
If a test does support the hypothesis what should you do? make additional predictions and test them
Who made Barbituric acid? Adolf Von Baeyer
What was barbituric acid market as in 1904? Veronal ( composed of diethyl barbituric acid)
In 1930 What did Ernest Volwiler and Donalee Tabern isolate? pentobarbital
What was pentobarbital marketed as? Nembutal
What often happened when people took to much pentobarbital? OD
What drug was introduced and was advertised as something you could not OD on? Thalidomide
What were some marketing names for Thalidomide? Distoval, Neurosedyn, Contergan, et alia
Was thalidomide ever sold in the US? NO
Who was the FDA agent who had the case to approve or deny the rights to Thalidomide in the US? Dr. Frances Kelsey
What were the two major problems with thalidomide? It had never been tested on a pregnant woman and it was sold as a sedative but never actually sedated the rats
Science is a __________? method
What did thalidomide cause? Severe birth defects because it transferred into the bloodstream of the fetus
What cells did thalidomide target? growth cells
How many babies survived the effects of thalidomide? 4000-5000
August 7 1962 Dr. Kelsey received what award for her work on thalidomide? The President's Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service (1st woman to do so)
What did Marilyn Monroe do 2 days before Dr. Kelsey received her award? OD'd on pentobarbital
What kinds of Science are we going to study? physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, and geology
What is physics? the study of matter in motion
What is chemistry? the study of the combination of molecules and atoms
What is biology? the study of living systems
What is astronomy? the study of objects in the heavens
What is geology? the study of the solid earth
How is science funded? Tax payer dollars
How much federal funding was awarded to science in 2014? $136 Billion
Where do scientist communicate their results? Scientific journals
What is a system by which the editor of a scientific journal submits manuscripts considered for publication to a panel of knowledgeable scientists who in confidence evaluate the manuscript for mistakes, misstatements, and shoddy procedures? Peer review
When is science writing trustworthy? When it is peer edited
What is pseudo science? false science / a kind or inquiry falling in the realm of belief of dogma that cannot be proved or disproved with a reproducible test
The greek word pseudes means? false
What are some common give aways for pseudo science? we have proven, this proves, proof that cannot be ignored
What are some common give aways for real science? Consistent with the hypothesis, Supports the existing model, We provide compelling evidence
Can we detect the sun and the moon? yes by using the 3 tools of science
Can we detect the apparent movement of the sun and moon? yes through observational science
Can we detect and characterize moving celestial bodies? yes
Who is credited with understanding how the planets move in respect to others? Ptolemy
What did ptolemy's model state? That the earth was the center of the universe
Who challenged Ptolemy's model of the universe? Copernicus
What was different about Copernicus's model vs Ptolemy's model? Copernicus stated that the sun was the center of the universe (he used observational science)
For all points on a circle, radius = ? distance to the center
For all points on an ellipse, d1 + d2 =? length of major axis
What did Johannes Kepler contribute to our understanding of the structure of the Solar System? Kepler's Law of Planetary Motion
What did Kepler's Law of Planetary Motion state? That planets move in ellipses with the sun as the focus
The branch of science that deals with the motions of material objects and the forces that act on them? mechanics
Can we measure motion? not without first detecting movement, after we must measure
What is the formula for speed? speed = distance/time —— in m/s
What is the difference between speed and velocity? Velocity is speed and direction
What is acceleration? A measure of the rate of change of velocity
What is the formula for acceleration? a = change in velocity / unit time
(m/s)/s = m/s^2
For a body at rest… Velocity (m/s) = acceleration (m/s^2) x time(s)
v = a x t
Distance traveled = ? Distance Traveled = 1/2 x acceleration x t^2
d = 1/2 x (a) x t^2
What makes an object accelerate? Force
What force acted on Galileo's model? Gravity
What is acceleration due to gravity on earth? 9.8 m/s^2
Who posed the universal laws of motion? Isaac Newton
An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an unbalance force. First Law of Motion
What is something that produces a change in the state of motion of an object? Force
What is the formula for force? F = m x a
Force equals mass time acceleration
The acceleration produced on a body by a force is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. Second Law of Motion
Mass is measured in? Kg
Acceleration is measured in? m/s^2
Force is measured in? Newtons
True or False; Weight and Mass are the same. False : weight and mass are different
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction Third Law of Motion
What is the opposite force of gravity on earth? Contact or Normal force
What is Momentum? the tendency of a body to keep moving
What is the formula for momentum? momentum = mass x velocity
p = m x v
p = kg x m/s
What is the conservation of linear momentum?
What is the conservation of angular momentum? is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity – the angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted on by an external torque.
What is an attractive force that acts on every object in the universe? gravity
What is the source of gravity? all matter
G =(6.67 x 10^-11 N x m^2) / kg^2 Gravitational Constant
Are g and G the same? No
Are g and G constant? G is, however, g can vary
Why care about energy? because we are alive and we use energy
What is any system that uses energy for the purposes of growth, maintenance, and reproduction? Living system
How do you determine if and object is alive? If it uses energy
What is energy? the ability to do work
What is energy measured in? Joules (J)
Who is the Joule named after? James Joule
What is work? force applied over a distance
What is the formula for work? W = F x d
J = N x m
One Joule = ? one Newton of force applied over one meter of space
Energy is measured in ? Joules (Newton x Meters)
Work is measured in ? Joules (Newton x Meters)
What is power? work per unit time
What is the formula for power? P = w/t
W = J/s
1 Watt =? 1 Joule per second
Who is the Watt named after? James Watt
What is the english unit for Watts? Horsepower (HP)
1 HP = ? 745.7 Watts as well as 550 ft pounds per second (FPS)
How much energy are we using? P = W/t
P x t = W
Watts x seconds = W
What are the 5 different forms of energy? kinetic, potential, thermal, wave, mass
What is kinetic energy? energy of motion
What is potential energy? the energy of position
What is thermal energy? the random kinetic energy of atoms and molecules
What is wave energy? the kinetic energy associated with different kinds of waves
How are mass and energy related? mass is a form of energy
Can energy be transformed? Yes, thinking hydroelectric energy
What is Total Mechanical Energy? Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy
Is sunlight energy ? Yes
How much energy does the earth receive from the sun? 5.65 x 10^24 J/yr
How much energy did the earth use in 2012 4.96 x 10^20 J/yr
First Trophic Level producers (plants and algae)
Second Trophic Level Primary Consumers (crickets) eat first
Third Trophic Level Secondary Consumers (Frogs) eat second
Fourth Trophic Level Tertiary Consumers (Humans) eat third
Is the transformation of usable energy across trophic levels efficient? No
What is a part of the universe under study and separated from its surroundings by a real or imaginary boundary? A system
What kinds of physical systems are there? Open, Closed, and Isolated
Open systems allow ? all matter and all energy
Closed Systems allow? no matter and energy only
Isolated systems allow? no matter or energy
In an isolated system the total amount of energy, including heat, is conserved First Law of Thermodynamics
What are the sources of energy? Coal, Renewables, Nuclear, Natural Gas, Oil, Hydroelectricity
What are carbon rich deposits of ancient life that burn with a hot flame? Fossil Fuels
What are 3 examples of fossil fuels? Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Coal
Which country has the most oil reserves? Venezuela
Which country produces the most oil? USA
What is a source of energy that, once used, are not quickly replace? Define and Give Examples. Non – Renewable energy source / coal, natural gas, oil, uranium ore
Will we need more energy in the future? yes
What is a renewable energy source? Sources of energy that, once used, are quickly replace
What are some examples of a renewable energy source? Wind and Solar Power
Who leads in the generation of wind power? USA but China is in second
Where are the wind farms concentrated in the US? Middle Texas and Iowa/Minnesota
Where are the solar farms in the US? South East, South West, and North East
Are there solar farms in Alabama? NO
Who leads the world in Solar power production? Germany
What are the pros of wind energy? renewable and plentiful, nearly completely clean, compatible with other land uses
What are the cons of wind energy? Variable amount of energy generated, danger to wildlife, negative environmental impact
How much does it cost to start a wind farm? Commercial: $1-2 million
Residential: $35-50k
What are the Pros of solar farms? renewable and plentiful, nearly completely clean, no mechanical parts, noiseless
What are the Cons of solar farms? cannot be used at night, low energy transformation efficiency
How much does it cost to start a solar farm? Residential: $15 -40k
What is Heat?(thermal energy) the random kinetic energy of atoms and molecules
What is a quantity that reflects how vigorously atoms are moving and colliding in a material? temperature
What countries in the world do not use the metric system? USA, Liberia, Myanmar
How can we measure temperature? Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin
Kelvin measures to what temperature? Absolute Zero
What is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a material by 1 degree C? Specific Heat Capacity
How is heat transferred? Conduction, Convection, and Radiation
What is the transfer of heat by collisions between vibrating atoms and molecules? Conduction
What is the transfer of heat by the physical motion of masses of fluid? Convection
What is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic radiation? Radiation
In a closed system, transformation of energy results in a decrease in usable energy and an increase in entropy. Second Law of Thermodynamics
What does the Second Law of Thermodynamics predict? 1. Heat will to flow spontaneously from a cold to a hot body. / 2. You cannot construct an engine that does nothing but convert heat to useful work. / 3. Every isolated system becomes more disordered with time.
What are the fundamental forces of the universe? Strong Force, Electromagnetic Force, Weak Force, Gravity
What is a force, more powerful than gravity, that moves objects both toward and away from each other, depending upon the charge Electricity
What is a phenomenon caused by the transfer of electrical charge between objects? Static Electricity
Is Lighting a form of electricity? Yes, It is a movement of electrical charge from water droplets to the ground
Charge of a Proton +1
Mass = 1.673 x 10^-27 kg
Charge of a Neutron 0
Mass = 1.675 x 10^-27 kg
Charge of an Electron -1
Mass = 9.1 x 10^-31 kg
What is the smallest unit of an element? atom
What is a substance that cannot be converted to simpler substances by ordinary chemical means? element
Are all atoms built the same way? No
How can we explain electricity in terms of charged particles? the movement of electrons
How do we measure the amount of a charge? Coulombs (C)
What is Coulomb's Law? F = (k x q1 x q2) / d^2
F – electrical force (N)
k – electrical constant (9 x 10^9 N x m^2/C^2)
q – charge (Coulombs, C)
d – distance between charges (m)
What is the strength of the force that acts on a +1 charge at that point in space? electrical field
What evidence do we have for magnetism? Iodestone and a compass from China in 220 BC
What is a collection of lines that map the direction that compass needles would point in the vicinity of the magnet? Magnetic Field
What are some things you should know about magnets? Every magnet has two poles, 2 Norths repel as well as 2 souths
What is an unboken path of material that carries electricity? electrical circuit
What is a flow of charged particles? electrical current
What units do we use to measure electrical current? amperes (A)
1 ampere (A) = ? 1 Coulomb of charge per second
What is it called when electric charges move from the positive (surplus) side of the battery to the negative (deficiency) side? Conventional Flow Notation
What is pressure produced by an energy source in an electrical circuit? Voltage (V)
What is a measurement of how hard it is to push electrons through materials? Electrical resistance (ohms R)
What is Ohm's Law? V = I x R
What is the connection between electricity and magnetism? magnetic fields can be created by the motions of electrical charges
How can we describe a magnetic field around a wire that carries current? right hand rule
What is a device that produces a magnetic field from a moving electrical charge? electromagnet

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