Chapter 10 Earth Science

Question Answer
What is continental drift? Continental drift is the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
What is the Mid-ocean-ridge? The mid-ocean-ridge is a long, undersea mountain chain that has a steep, narrow valley at its center, that forms as magma rises from the athenosphere, and that creates new oceanic lithosphere as tectonic plates move apart.
What is sea-floor spreading? Sea-floor spreading is the process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises to earths surface and solidifies at a mid-ocean ridge.
What is Paleomagnetism? Paleomagnetism is the study of the alignment of minerals in rocks, specifically as it relates to the reversal of earths magnetic poles; also the magnetic properties that rock acquires during formation.
What is plate tectonics? Plate tectonics is the theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape.
What is lithosphere? Lithosphere is the solid, outer layer of earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.
What is asthenosphere? Asthenosphere is the solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it.
What is a divergent boundary? A divergent boundary is the boundary between tectonic plates that are moving away firm each other.
What are convergent boundaries? Convergent boundaries are the boundry between tectonic plates that are colliding
What is a transform boundry? Transform boundaries are the boundaries between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
What is rifting? Rifting is the process by which earths crust breaks apart; can occur within continental crust or oceanic crust.
What is Terrane? Terrane is a piece of lithosphere that has a unique geologic history and that may be part of a larger piece of lithosphere, such as a continent.

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