Chapter 11 dna biology flashcard

proteins are made up of
amino acids
there are twenty different types of
amino acids
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the message of the DNA code is information for building
each set of three nitrogenous bases that codes for an amino acid is known as a
there can be more than one ? for the same amino acid
for any one codon, there can be only one
amino acid
the genetic code is said to be universal because a codon represents the same ? in almost all organisms `
proteins are made in the cytoplasm of a cell, where as DNA is found only in the
the process of making RNA from DNA is called
the process of transcription is similar to the process of DNA
carries info from the DNA in the nucleus out into the cytoplasm of the cell
messenger RNA
mRNA carries info for making proteins to the
a mutation is any mistake or change in the
DNA sequence
a point mutation is a change in
a single base pair in DNA
a mutation in which a single base is added to or deleted from DNA is called
frame shift mutation
chromosomal mutations are especially common in
few chromosome mutations are passed on to the next generation because a. the zygote usually dies b. the mature organism is sterile c. the mature organism is often incapable of producing offspring d. all of the above
when part of one chromosome breaks off and is added to a different chromosome, the result is a
many chromosome mutations result when chromosomes fail to separate properly during
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly is called
mutations that occur at ransom are called
spontaneous mutations
an agent that can cause a change in DNA is called a
mutations in body cells can sometimes result in
during the process of transcription, DNA serves as the template for making ?, which leaves the nucleus and travels to the ribosomes.
involves the addition or deletions of a single baser in a DNA molecule
frame shift mutations
Watson and crick developed the ? model of DNA
double helix
thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine are
nitrogenous bases
the process in which DNA makes a copy of itself is called
brings amino acids to the ribosomes for the assembly of proteins
a change in a single base pair of the DNA molecule is called a
point mutation
is the failure of a pair of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis
the process of converting RNA code into an amino acid sequence is called
when parts of chromosomes are broken off and lost or reattached incorrectly during mitosis or meiosis, the result is
chromosomal mutation
X-ray, ultraviolent light, and radioactive substances that can change the chemical nature of DNA are classified as
an RNA molecule is a polymer composed of subunits known as
the heredity information for a particular trait is generally
controlled by alleles located on chromosomes
from largest to smallest arrange these terms: cell, DNA, nucleus, Nucleotide, and chromosome
cell, nucleus, chromosome, DNA, nucleotide
a DNA nucleotide may be made up of a phosphate group, along with
deoxyribose sugar and thymine
is a carbon ring structure that contains or more atoms of nitrogen
nitrogenous base
because DNA is composed of two strands twisted together, its shape is called a double helix
double helix
the DNA in the chromosomes is copied in a process
DNA replication
`brings instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the cell’s factory floor, the cytoplasm
messenger RNA
binds to the mRNA ans uses the instructions to assemble the amino acids in the correct order
ribosomal RNA
is the supplier
transfer RNA
enzymes make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand in a process
set of the three nitrogenous bases that represents an amino acids; order of nitrogenous bases in MRA
process of conserving information in MRNA into a sequence of amino acids in a protein
any change or random error in a DNA sequence
mutation in a DNA sequence occurs from a change in a single basepair
point mutation
mutation that occurs when a single base is added or deleted from DNA
frameshift mutation
mutation that occurs at the chromosome level resulting in changes in the gene distribution
chromosomal mutation
any agent that can cause a change in DNA; include high-energy radiation

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