The growth of Staphylococcus aureus on human skin is an example of _____.
a parasite that causes disease.
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of a pathogen?
Most of the members of the resident microbiota are classified as _____.
exposure to a nonliving reservoir
All of the following encourage the development of opportunistic pathogens EXCEPT _____.
Mucous membranes are generally thinner than the skin.
Why do many pathogens prefer the mucous membranes over the skin as a portal of entry?
The number of new cases of a disease in a given population during a given period of time is called _____.
Which of the following would be classified as a sign of a disease?
Which of the following affects the function of cells lining the gastrointestinal tract?
a form of direct contact transmission
Which of the following does NOT correctly refer to aerosols?
M protein, produced by Streptococcus pyogenes, is an example of a(n) _____.
Which of the following is the most severe stage of an infectious disease?
Which of the following might be the source of zoonosis?
Which of the following is associated with vector transmission?
A disease that develops rapidly and lasts a short time is called a(n) ________ disease.
All of the following are examples of noncommunicable diseases EXCEPT _____.
A disease that occurs more frequently than expected for a given population would be considered _____.
Koch’s postulates are an important part of which of the following?
A retrospective epidemiological study is an example of which of the following types of epidemiology?
An infection caused by surgery or by the use of devices such as catheters is called a(n) ___________ infection.
screening of health care workers for latent infections
Which of the following is NOT an activity associated with public health agencies in their work to limit disease transmission?
Epidemiologists are concerned with the study of only infectious disease transmission.
False. (It’s considered a pandemic now.)
T/F? AIDS is considered to be an epidemic.
False. (All diseases can be classified according to their longevity or severity, and by other criteria.)
T/F? Only infectious diseases can be classified according to their longevity or severity.
False. (Mechanical vectors transmit many diseases passively just by crawling on or touching items such as food or skin.)
T/F? Mechanical vectors typically introduce pathogens into a host by a bite.
True. (Feces-contaminated water can serve as a reservoir as well as a vehicle of infection when it is ingested.)
T/F? Fecal-oral infection can result from waterborne transmission.
True. (Droplets that travel less than 1 meter are considered to be agents of direct contact transmission.)
T/F? Airborne transmission involves the spread of infectious droplets over more than 1 meter of the surrounding area.
True. (A person who practices poor personal hygiene can easily transmit pathogens from his or her portals of exit to one of the portals of entry.)
T/F? Direct contact transmission of a disease can occur within the same person.
True. (Infections may be spread during symptomatic periods as well as during incubation and convalescence.)
T/F? Every stage of a disease can be infectious.
False. (Even though it is possible, zoonoses are usually not transmitted from humans to animals.)
T/F? Zoonoses are transmitted from animals to humans or vice versa.
False. (Pathogens can be arranged on a “virulence continuum,” and different pathogens can exhibit varying levels of virulence, especially in certain types of hosts.)
T/F? Pathogenic microbes are either completely virulent or completely avirulent.
False. (The first case is called an index case. A primary infection is the initial infection within a given patient.)
T/F? The first case of a disease in an area or population is called the primary infection.
The presence of microbes in or on the body is best described as _____.
A site where a pathogen normally survives and multiplies is called a _____.
True. (Some pathogens secrete streptokinases or staphylokinases, which digest blood clots. Other pathogens secrete coagulases, which cause blood to coagulate or clot. Both types of enzymes are considered virulence factors.)
T/F? Some pathogens secrete enzymes that digest blood clots, while other pathogens secrete enzymes that cause blood to clot.
Toxoids. (Biofilms are one method that bacteria can use to attach to surfaces within the host.)
Which of the following would NOT help a microbe attach to host cells?
False. (Morbidity refers to the disease itself (and usually means the number of cases of disease), while mortality refers to the deaths from disease.)
T/F? Morbidity refers to the number of deaths for a given disease.
present in cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria only. (This is a characteristic of an endotoxin. Exotoxins are not found in the cell wall and can be secreted by either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.)
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of exotoxins?
a method by which pathogens enter the deeper tissues directly
Parenteral refers to _____.
True. (Soil can contain pathogens, particularly if it has been contaminated with feces.)
T/F? Soil is a reservoir of infection.
incubation, prodromal, illness, decline, convalescence
Which of the following the stages of infectious diseases in the proper order?
sterile. (In the lab, the term axenic is used to refer to a pure culture. However, it also can refer to parts of the body that are normally sterile.)
The term axenic refers to a part of the body that is _____.
microbes associated with a certain area of the body. (The normal microbiota are the microbes that normally live at a certain location in the body.)
What is meant by the term normal microbiota?
The competition for space and nutrients that occurs between different populations of microbes is known as _____.
Bacteria that possess structures such as fimbriae and glycocalyces are more likely to form which of the following?
They can be used to prove that a particular microbe causes a disease. (Koch’s postulates provided significant support for the germ theory of disease because they were the first means of demonstrating the pathogenic nature of a bacterial isolate.)
Why are Koch’s postulates an important aspect of the germ theory of disease?
endotoxin. (Lipid A, also known as endotoxin, is the most dangerous part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall.)
A Gram-negative infection could be more serious due to the presence of which of the following in the Gram-negative cell wall?
the study of the occurrence and spread of diseases in human populations
John Snow contributed which of the following ideas to the science of microbiology?
sitting near someone with a cold on an airplane
Nosocomial infections can be contracted in any of the following ways EXCEPT _____.
A human might contract a zoonosis from which of the following?
a person with no symptoms who transmits the disease to another person
A carrier is _____.
biting arthropods. (Biting arthropods such as fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes are the primary biological vectors of diseases affecting humans.)
Biological vectors of diseases affecting humans are typically which of the following?
Which of the following would NOT be considered a portal of exit?
If there are only one or two cases of a particular disease every 2-3 years within a particular region, the disease would be termed _____.
Which of the following is regarded as a part of the body’s normal microbiota?
fomite: eating an unwashed apple
Which of the following modes of transmission is not correctly matched with an example of that mode?
attach to body cells or tissues
The fact that Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces fimbriae means that one would expect this bacterium to _____.
the causes of disease
Etiology is the study of _____.
A disease in which the symptoms and signs build slowly over a lengthy period of time would be considered _____.
Which of the following would NOT be considered a communicable disease?
allows it to reproduce more rapidly
Which of the following is NOT a function of the bacterial cell capsule?
E. coli in the colon is an example of __________ microbiota.
a relationship between two organisms where both members benefit.
The condition known as mutualism is
relationship where one harms the other
The condition called parasitism is characterized as
Normal microbiota may cause disease if they are introduced into an unusual site in the body.
microbes cross the placenta during pregnancy.
Which of the following situations is NOT a way in which a baby acquires normal microbiota?
any microorganism that causes disease.
A pathogen is best described as
a source of microbial contamination.
A reservoir is
asymptomatic and infective.
A carrier for a particular disease is _____.
its reservoir includes both domestic and wild animals
Rabies is an example of a zoonosis that is hard to control because _____.
A pathogen is introduced into the body when the person rubs the eye with contaminated fingers and the pathogen is washed into the nasal cavity by way of tears.
In which of the following do the mucous membranes serve as a portal of entry for disease?
Haemophilus influenzae and the flu
Which of the following pairings of microbe and disease was disproven using Koch’s postulates?
A syndrome is a group of symptoms and signs that collectively characterize a particular disease.
Which of the following stages of an infectious disease is the most severe?
subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel.
Koch’s postulates can be applied to every infectious disease to identify its causative pathogen.
An antiphagocytic factor is one that permits pathogens to avoid attack by macrophages.
elevated lymphocyte levels.
In an asymptomatic individual, which of the following might still be detectable?
decline. (The immune system is fully functional during the decline period of a disease, and the immune response continues throughout the convalescence period.)
A patient’s immune system becomes fully responsive during which of the following stages of disease?
Which of the following is NOT considered a type of vehicle transmission of a pathogen?
An infected toy
Which of the following would be considered a fomite?
When aerosols containing pathogens spread disease from a distance of less than one meter, it is considered
Contact, vehicle, and vector transmission
Which of the following is considered a major category of transmission of disease?
The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner
Which is an example of vehicle disease transmission?
indirect contact transmission
A patient acquires an infection by touching a contaminated door handle. Which mode of transmission best describes this scenario?
A dog develops a diarrheal disease after drinking water from a creek during a hike with his owner. Which of the following best describes this method of disease transmission?
cockroach transmission of Shigella
Which of the following is considered a mechanical vector transmission?
where and when a disease occurs, and how it is transmitted.
Epidemiology is defined as the study of
To learn how to treat and prevent various diseases.
What is the role of epidemiology?