Chapter 15

How does the vapor pressure of water compare with most volatile liquids? Vapor pressure of water is significantly lower
What is volatile liquids? gasoline; goes into gas form easily
What is the best way to determine if a solution is an electrolyte? does it conduct electricity
If electricity is not conducted through a solid compound but is conducted when the solid is dissolved(molten) what is the compound? electrolyte
Why does ice float on liquid water? hydrogen bonding causes water molecules in ice to be held apart in an orderly arrangement
How are water molecules arranged in ice? in a framework of hexagonal shapes
Which types of compounds are usually electrolytes? (give example) salts; examples: sodium chloride, lithium chloride, and lithium nitrate; (Groups 1,2,3 + Groups 5,6,7, or polyatomics )
What is the difference in O to H(water) and C to H bonds(volatile)? Hydrogen bonding is stronger among the water molecules than methane
How does hydrogen bonding account for the properties of water? increases the attractive force among water molecules; allows water to exist in a liquid state among different temperatures
How does a suspension differ from a solution? particles of a suspension are much larger and do not stay suspended
Why do hydrate easily gain and lose water? because there's a relatively weak force that holds water molecules within the hydrate
What effect do surfactants have on water? it decreases the surface tension of the water
What characteristic of water prevents water from evaporating too rapidly? has lower vapor pressure which means that it has a wider range of temperatures
Liquid water forms small round beads on flat surface, why does this happen? surface tension will hold water molecules together
What is the best way to determine if a mixture contains dissolved solids? place electrodes in the water and observe if it conducts electricity
What atom in water is most electronegative? oxygen
What are some examples of colloids? smoke, fog, milk, and mayonnaise
What is the difference between a solution and a hydrate? hydrates are crystals that contain water molecules while solutions are solutes that are dissolved in water
What compounds are most soluble in water? ionic compounds(salts; Groups 1,2,3 + Groups 5,6,7,or polyatomics)
Interferes with hydrogen bonding between water molecules surfactant
dissolving medium solvent
homogeneous mixture of water and dissolved substances aqueous solution
solute ions or molecules are surrounded by solvent molecules solvation
compound that will conduct current in the liquid state or in aqueous solution electrolyte
compound that ionizes incompletely in aqueous solution weak electrolyte
mixture in which particle size averages between 1 nm and 1000 nm colloid
inward force tending to minimize surface area of a liquid surface tension
dissolved particle solute
mixture in which particle size averages greater than 1000 nm in diameter suspension
colloidal particles spread throughout a suspension dispersed phase
phenomenon observed when beam of light passes through a colloid Tyndall Effect
chaotic movement of colloidal particles Brownian motion
colloid of a liquid in a liquid emulsion

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