Chapter 20 Reading Quiz

introducing a human gene into a bacterial plasmid
Which of the following is an example of “recombinant DNA technology?”
a restriction enzyme … DNA ligase
In recombinant DNA experiments, what is used to cut pieces of DNA and what joins the resulting fragments to form recombinant DNA?
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Use the polymerase chain reaction.
Archaeologists unearthed a human skull with a small dried fragment of the scalp still attached. They extracted a tiny amount of DNA from the scalp tissue. How could they obtain sufficient DNA for an analysis of the ancient human’s genes?
mRNA … reverse transcriptase
cDNA is synthesized from what molecule using an enzyme known as what?
free nucleotides, DNA polymerase, DNA primers
Which “ingredients” for PCR and for the dideoxy chain-termination method of DNA sequencing are the same?
length
Gel electrophoresis separates DNA fragments on the basis of what characteristic?
retain all the genes that were in the zygote that developed into the original plant
If cells from a carrot are removed and placed in a culture medium, they can develop into a normal adult plant. This demonstrates that carrot cells _____.
All of the above.
If cells from a carrot are removed and placed in a culture medium, they can develop into a normal adult plant. This demonstrates that carrot cells _____.
The prosecution is right. STR analysis with 13 markers gives a 1 in 10 billion or greater chance that two people will have the same pattern. This person was at the crime scene.
You are a member of the jury for a murder case. The prosecution has presented DNA evidence linking the defendant to the crime scene. The defense claims that DNA evidence using STR analysis with 13 markers is not sufficient to reliably distinguish between people. What do you think?
the Ti plasmid
What is the most commonly used vector for introducing transgenes into plants?
post-transcriptional processing.
Expression of a cloned eukaryotic gene in a bacterial cell involves many challenges. The use of mRNA and reverse transcriptase is part of a strategy to solve the problem of
GGCC CCGG
Which of the following sequences in double-stranded DNA is most likely to be recognized as a cutting site for a restriction enzyme?
The Pax-6 genes of flies and mice arose from an ancestral gene in a common ancestor.
The vertebrate Pax-6 gene product (the PAX-6 protein) triggers a complex program of gene expression resulting in formation of the vertebrate eye, which has a single lens. The fly Pax-6 gene leads to formation of the compound fly eye. When scientists cloned a mouse Pax-6 gene and introduced it into a fly embryo, it led to formation of the compound eye of a fly. What did scientists induce from this?
Recombinant bacteria that have taken up the plasmid can be recognized because they are able to survive in the presence of ampicillin.
A researcher is preparing to insert a human gene of interest into a bacterial plasmid in order to clone the human gene. She has genetically engineered the plasmid to carry a gene amp R , which confers resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. She will include ampicillin in the plating medium when she grows the recombinant bacteria. Why has she engineered the plasmid to include an antibiotic resistance gene? Choose the best answer.
Recombinant bacteria cannot produce the blue product.
For a gene cloning experiment, a researcher inserts the lacZ gene into a bacterial plasmid. The lacZ gene encodes the enzyme ß-galactosidase, which catalyzes a synthetic molecule called X-gal to form a blue product. X-gal is included in the plating medium. The restriction enzyme used by the researcher cleaves a recognition sequence within the lacZ gene. Why did the researcher insert the lacZ gene into the plasmid?
They would use PCR to amplify the DNA.
Cold case detectives are investigating a homicide that took place 30 years ago. In reexamining the evidence, they find a tiny spot of blood on the victim’s clothing that was likely left by the murderer. The DNA in the blood has partially degraded over time. What technique(s) would the blood lab technicians use in their examination of this tiny, degraded blood sample?
GM food crops might pass their new genes to close relatives in nearby wild areas.
The protein products of transgenes in GM food crops might lead to allergic reactions in human consumers.
Which of the following is a concern expressed by opponents of the use of genetically modified (GM) food crops?
When separated on a gel, the pattern of DNA bands will be characteristic of those cut with Hind III, different restriction enzymes will not produce these same fragments.
In an experiment, DNA from the linear form of the bacteriophage Lambda was cut into fragments using the restriction enzyme Hind III. Restriction enzymes are isolated from bacteria and cut DNA in specific locations. Hind III cuts the Lambda DNA between the adenine nucleotides on the complimentary strands in a specific sequence, as indicated in the diagram, producing eight different size fragments. These fragments are then separated with an electrical current based on size after the DNA fragments are placed in a porous gel, a process called gel electrophoresis. cut site ï€ ï€ ï€ ( 5′ A A G C T T 3′ 3′ T T C G A A 5′ ( cut site Select an observation that best describes a correct aspect of the two processes of restriction digest and gel electrophoresis:
Nutrient broth to which ampicillin has been added.
Organisms share many conserved core processes and features, including transcription and translation using a uniform genetic code. Scientists have used these shared processes and features in biotechnology. For example, for the process of some transformations, a plasmid is constructed when a eukaryotic gene of interest is added with an antibiotic resistant gene such beta-lactamase, which is used for ampicillin resistance. This plasmid is then inserted into a prokaryotic bacterial cell, such as E-coli, through a transformation process that leads to the production of the product protein from the eukaryotic organism. To culture the bacteria and obtain the protein product, the bacteria must grow. Select the appropriate condition to determine if the plasmid has entered the E-coli bacterial cell.
a restriction enzyme
Which enzyme was used to produce the molecule in the figure?
a yeast plasmid
A researcher needs to clone a particular DNA sequence in order to express the sequence and to modify the polypeptide product. She would be able to satisfy these requirements by using which of the following vectors?
BACs
The DNA fragments making up a genomic library are often contained in
a BAC
A student wants to clone a DNA sequence of ~200 kb in length. Which vector would be appropriate?
BACs can carry much larger DNA fragments than ordinary plasmids can.
The major advantage of using artificial chromosomes such as BACs for cloning genes is that
a
The segment of DNA shown in the figure has restriction sites I and II, which create restriction fragments A, B, and C. Which of the gels produced by electrophoresis shown below best represents the separation and identity of these fragments?
to decrease the production from a harmful mutated gene
RNAi methodology uses double-stranded pieces of RNA to trigger breakdown of a specific mRNA or inhibition of its translation. For which of the following might this technique be useful?
to sequence a DNA fragment
Why might a laboratory use dideoxyribonucleotides?
X inactivation in the embryo is random and produces different patterns.
The first cloned cat, called Carbon Copy, was a calico, but she looked significantly different from her female parent. Why?
A retrovirus is used to introduce four specific regulatory genes.
In recent times, it has been shown that adult cells can be induced to become pluripotent stem cells (iPS). In order to make this conversion, what has been done to the adult cells?
all of them
Let us suppose that someone is successful at producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) for replacement of pancreatic insulin-producing cells for people with type 1 diabetes. Which of the following could still be problems?
I. the possibility that, once introduced into the patient, the iPS cells produce nonpancreatic cells
II. the failure of the iPS cells to take up residence in the pancreas
III. the inability of the iPS cells to respond to appropriate regulatory signals
They can give rise to all cell types in the organism.
Which of the following is true of embryonic stem cells but not of adult stem cells?
embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than adult stem cells.
In animals, embryonic stem cells differ from adult stem cells in that
Microorganisms used in recombinant DNA experiments are genetically crippled to ensure that they cannot survive outside of the laboratory.
Scientists developed a set of guidelines to address the safety of DNA technology. Which of the following is one of the adopted safety measures?
Transferred genes may not have appropriately controlled activity.
Which of the following is one of the technical reasons why gene therapy is problematic?
prevention of transmission of plant allergens to the vaccine recipients
One possible use of transgenic plants is in the production of human proteins, such as vaccines. Which of the following is a possible hindrance that must be overcome?
include transgenic rice plants that can grow in water of high salinity.
Genetically engineered plants
fluorescent labeling to determine the chromosomal location of all chromosome 22 fragments
Which of the following would be a reasonably efficient technique for confirming the diagnosis of CML?
The drug inhibits the specific receptor tyrosine kinase.
Why would Gleevec most probably cause remission of the disease?
design and synthesis of products that will remove poisons from the human body
Genetic engineering is being used by the pharmaceutical industry. Which of the following is not currently one of the uses?
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