Chapter 21 Terms and Objectives- Americas and Oceania Essay

Julia Smith Chapter 21 terms Worlds apart the Americas and Oceania Tula: Important city for the Toltec’s Center of weaving, pottery and obsidian, Residents imported luxury goods here from elsewhere in Mesoamerica Shared numerous architectural designs and art motifs with Mayan cities Different ethnic groups living in Tula faced civil strife Aztlan: Where the word Aztec comes from It means the place of seven legendary caves Aztecs are also referred to as Mexica Lake Texcoco: Aztecs settled on a marshy island region Tenochitilan is the capital that was made here

The lake harbored plentiful supplies or fish, frogs, and waterfowl Developed the chinampa system of agriculture- dredged a rich and fertile much from bottom and built into plots of lands that the crops were grown on – 7 crops a year Tribute Empire: Aztecs created a triple alliance and their main objective was to extract tribute from the captured Received food, cloths, jewelry, obsidian, textiles Luxury items were used with recognized merchants to take to far away places There was no bureaucracy or administration because the collection of tribute was the empire There was not even an army they just made a force when needed

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Mexica: Hierarchal with rewards going to the military elites Military elite came from the aristocracy Showered wealth upon the warriors Dress=social status The women had no public role/property/worked in crafts and markets Priest also ranked high like the warriors Calpulli: Commoners who cultivated the chinampas Clans or groups of families claiming decent from common ancestors Organized affairs Assigned to chinampas Bulk of population Groups of families lived together in small communities Works on the lands of the aristocrats

Had to give periodic tribute payments Huitzilopochtli: Killing of human victims He was the patron deity to sacrifice Military success persuaded them that the Huitzilopochtli favored the Aztec The cult demanded more victims to keep this deity happy Sun and military god? Essential to the worlds survival Preist of this cult demanded victims to keep god appeased Quetzalcoatl: One of Mexicas main principal gods “The Feathered Serpent” Had a reputation for supporting arts, crafts, and agriculture Cahokia Society Chucuito: Dominated highlands around Lake Titicaca

Depended on cultivation of potatoes and the herding of llamas and alpacas Elaborately terraced fields with stone retaining walls – potatoes were staple crop Obtained maize and coca leaves from societies in the lower valleys Fell under domination of the Incas Chima: In the lowlands Governed a large and thriving society irrigation tapped the rivers /streams from Andes Abundant crops of sweet potatoes and maize Enjoyed considerable wealth and recognized between social classes Fell under domination of the Incas Chanchan: Chimus capital city Population that exceeded fifty thousand

Massive brick buildings-mobilizing large numbers of people and resources for public Well defined social order- each block belonged to an individual’s clan that supervised the affairs of members and worked well with other clans Quipu: Administration rested with large class of bureaucrats Relied on this mnemonic aid to keep track of responsibilities Consisted of array of small cords of colors and lengths Recorded statistical info with population/property/taxes/labor services owed to gov Also helped remember historical information Help run a good strong empire Cuzco:

Richest city in the new world why attracted Spaniards Most people lived in villages and would go to cities for festivals or business Administrative, ceremonial, religious center Red stone buildings, important temples and palaces with gold Inca rulers and high nobility, priest, conquered people live here Tenochtitlan: Capital city of the Aztecs/ region of Lake Texococo Lake harbored supplies of fish, frogs and waterfowl Developed the chinampa system of agriculture Grew lots of crops so fertile and productive to harvest 7 crops a year Waters protected the city on all sides Royal mummies

Descendents of Inca rulers mummified royal remains and regarded departed kings as intermediaries with the gods Deliberated state policy in the presence of royal mummies to benefit from their consul Dressed in fine clothes, silver and gold jewelry, offerings of food and drink Maintain relations with formal rulers Supervise class of bureaucrats and aristocrats Inti: Venerated the sun as a god(Aztecs) They called this deity inti Also recognized all other forces of nature as divine Cult of the sun outshone all other cults 4000 priest served into whose temple attracted pilgrims from all over

Motecuzoma II: Ruler of the Aztec empire when Spanish invaders appeared Was a priest of the most popular Mexica cult Received a special education Read omens explained the forces that drove the world Mound Builders: most impressive structures of woodlands enormous earthen mounds dotted the county side mounds were for ceremonies and rituals platforms for dwellings/burial sits largest was found ay Cahokia- 3rd largest structure in the western hemisphere before Europeans 100 smaller mounds surround this mound Battle of Cajamarca: pizzaro captures Atuallapa- controlled all Aztec society

Atahuallpa held prisioner for eight months He was held hostage to fill a room filled with gold- but he was excutued Superior weapons made it easier for the Spanish but the capture of Ata made the whole thing faster Had absolute authority over his subjects Atahuallpa commanded an army of only 80, 0000 Pizzaro had much larger army and also had animals Battle of Tenochtitlan: Explain how the Toltec’s became a prosperous civilization and how it maintained its ascendancy: The Toltec’s had a unified rule; they tapped waters in order to irrigate all crops- agriculture

Maintained a large and powerful army-campained through central mexico Exacted tribute from subject cities- ones they captured Had important center (Tula) exports Close relations with areas around the coast. Built compact regional empire maintained fortresses Explain the collapse of the Toltec society: Conflicts (Tula)between different ethic groups- nomads entered from central Mexico migrants entered Tula- fire could have also destroyed the area. Aztecs change their status from a group of nomads to people who controlled a great empire: Migrated from Mexico but no one would let them join in

The nomads started to make trouble kidnapping women, seizing the lands that migrate around Found lake texcoco-built capital tenochitlan which had the advantages of fishing and was on a defensive location Also use chinampas which were a system of agriculture-fertile-numerous crops They became powerful enough to start exacting tribute from surrounding areas Aztecs formed allies so that they could take more tribute. Economy of the Aztecs: Created a triple alliance to get more tribute Thousands of items would come from people they captured

Merchants that were higher could trade luxury items for the ruling elite No bureaucracy or administration Local govern left in the hands of people for the tribute and trade Left in the hands of the conquered people(tribute) Trade/chinapas gave a surplus of food Hierarchical structure of Aztec Society Rigidly hierarchical public honors to military elite Males were political warriors The military came from Aztec aristocracy Good warriors could wear bright colors Women =no rule- high honor to be mom of a warrior If a women died in birth it was the same as dying in a battle

Common people are distinguished in battle, men of noble birth had better training able to show courage Role of human sacrifice Maintain the world – wanted the sun to rise the next day Simply paying a debt to the gods Devotion to the god Huitzilpochtli Military success= human sacrifice Cult would demand victims- used captured victims Gods set world in motion by individual acts of sacrifice Human sacrifice was essential for survival Blood would sustain the sun and constant supply of moisture Characteristics in North American societies: Lived in wide range of environments

Cultivated corn as the staple crop Were hunter fisher gatherers Small scale societies Were all based on agriculture Pueblo and Navajo came from stone masonry and village dweller Throw food in fires to pay respect from the gods Iroqouis- newyork women were in charge of the villages Navajo- had farming as a important goal Explain the rise of the Inca state: Region around lake titicaca Launched a series of military attacks- ended the chimu by cutting off the water supply The empire was more like a confederation of tribes Started to expand all over the area southern and northern highlands

Explain operation of the highly centralized political administration of the Inca State: ruled as a military and administrative elite- now numerous enough to overwhelm subjects took the subjects and forced them to live at the inca capital- allowed to choose lands and have some economic benefits large class of bureaucrats that relyed on quipu to remember things form of writing kinda statisitical info, taxes, labor services, information, empire, rulers, and deeds explain the hierarchical structure of the incan state: four social classes: rulers, aristocrats, priest, peasants o wealthy merchant class emerges unlike the Aztecs. Rulers:descended from the sun, mummified, supervises, all other government workers made laws Aristocrats and preist: special food and clothing “big ears” Peasants:(cultivators) ayluu, mita much like capulli, produce food for uperclass and store houses Everyone must dedicate the time or food to the government Explain the obligations that Aztecs and Incas had to their states: Aztecs had to give military service Inca:mita(taxes) lots of labor to government Describe Inca religion and how they differed from the Aztec religious beliefs:

Inca: deeply religious people, sourcers held high postions in society magic-communicate Two deaths: biological and social (social was the worst death to have) Inti was there sun god-all natural forces are divine- had a strong moral dimension- people were given everything they needed so no thiefs so no stealing no prisions needed Life after death, sin, confessions and penance with absolution by preist Capacocha: human sacrifice using children they had to be perfect children Sacrificial of agriculture Pacquiti-varachoca as creator of the universe Aztec:

Combined religion of areas surrounding-cultural traditions Bloodletting- common to all Mesoamerica-continuation of the world Tezacatipoca(smoking mirror)giver and taker of life and Quetzalcoatl: (feathered serpent) arts, crafts, agriculture main gods Huitilopochtli: sacrificial god- human sacrifice- military sacrifice (large number of human sacrifice) Explain how the Spanish were able to conquer both the Aztecs and the incas: Aztecs thought they were gods- attacked by surprise: Horses, Armour, guns, helmets, written language Ships were a result of a strong government in spain

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