Chapter 27: Eukaryotes and Protists Essay

. Know characteristics of single-celled heterotroph
. Understand eukaryotic life cycles
. Endosymbiosis; origin of mitochondria and chloroplast
. Know 7 superkingdoms of eukaryotes
. Know superkingdom Opisthokonta
. Choanoflagellates
. Know Superkingdom Amoebazoa
. Know superkingdom Archaeplastida
. Know green algae diversity
. Know superkingdom Excavata
. Know phylogeny of phtosynthesis
. Fossil record of protists
Chapter 28: Being Multicellular
. Know about simple multicellularity
. Know properties of complex multicellularity
. Understand diffusion and bulk transport
. Know about choanoflagellates
. Know communication in animals and plants
. Understand blastula, gastrulation, gastrula
. Understand Evo-Devo, regulatory genes and homeotic genes
Chapters 29/31: Plant Structure and Function
. Know phylogeny of plants
. Know anatomy of a vascular plant
. Know term transpiration,stomata,cavitation,cuticle,lignin,
endodermis, mycorrhize
. Understand CAM photosynthesis
. Know xylem anatomy
. Know phloem anatomy, turgor pressure
. Know the differences between phloem and xylem
Chapters 30/33: Plant Diversity and Reproduction
. Know plant diversity; over 90% angiosperms
. Earliest land plants evolved 465 mya
. Know examples of and characteristics of Bryophytes
. Know what sphagnum moss is
. Know what epiphyte is
. Know examples and characteristics of vascular seedless plants
. Know two groups of seed plants: gymnosperm and angiosperm
Know 4 types of gymnosperm; know conifers
. Know green algae most closely related to land plants
. Understand Alternation of Generations; know sporophyte, gametophyte,
sporangium, gametangium, the entire cycle, which is n or 2n
. Bryophytes/nonvascular plants: includes mosses, liverworts, hornworts
. Bryophytes have dominant haploid gametophyte with a dependent sporophyte
. Know the term sporopollenin
. Know seedless vascular plants: includes ferns, lycophytes; know their
. Seedless vascular plants: sporophyte dominant with small, close to ground
. Know the life cycle evolution in land plants
. Know seed plants: gymnosperms and angiosperms
. Understand the advantages of seeds over spores; know seed structure
. Know characteristics of gymnosperms
. Know double fertilization of angiosperms; angiosperm seeds with endosperm
. Flower anatomy
Chapter 32: Plant Defense
. Plants have developed mechanisms to protect themselves from: viruses,
bacteria, fungi, worms, parasitic plants
. Pathogens enter plants through damaged tissue or stomata
. Potato Blight
. 1st line of defense for plants
. Biotrophic pathogens versus necrotrophic pathogens
. Parasitic plants
. Plant immune systems: basal versus specific
. Hypersensitive response
. Systemic acquired resistance
. 7 Levels of plant defense
. Herbivory
. Molecular: terpenoids, phenolics, alkaloids
. Plant compounds used in medicines
. Cellular: central vacuoles
. Tissue: tough sclenchma fibers
. Organ: hairs, spines, silica plates
. Organismal: entire physiology
. Population:coordinated behavior
. Community: predatory animals
. Symbionts of ants and acacia
. Constitutive defenses versus inducible defenses

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