Chapter 27: The musculoskeletal system

Question Answer
abduction movement away from the midline or the axis of the body
acetabulum area of the pelvis where the femur attaches to form the hip joint
adduction movement toward the midline or the axis of the body
appendicular skeleton contains bones of the body that hang, the limbs or appendages
arthritis inflammation of the joints
atlas the first cervical vertebrae located at the base of the brain that allows for up and down motions of the head
axial skeleton contains bones of the body that lie perpendicular or lengthwise
axis second cervical vertebrae that allows for rotation and shaking of the head
ball and socket joint that rotates in numerous directions
bone hard, active tissue that consists mostly of calcium and forms the skeleton of the body, gives body support, structure, and protection
bone marrow fluid within the medullary cavity where blood cells are produced
bone plate surgical steel plate placed around a fractured bone that holds the bone together with surgical scres
callus cartilage that rebuilds and thickens over a fractured bone that has healed
cancellous bone sponge like, softer layer of bone located inside the ends of bone
cannon long bones in hoofed animals located above the ankle joint
carpal lower leg that is similar to the wrist
carpus joint formed by several carpal bones and arranged in two rows in the area of the wrist
cartilage forms at the ends of bones to protect and cushion the bone
cartilage joint connects at the end of a joint where two bones meets and acts as a cushion
cast material made of a hard substance and placed over a broken bone to keep the bone in place as it heals
cerclage wire surgical wire used to hold fragments of broken bone together while healing
cervical first section of the spinal column located over the neck area
coccygeal last section of the vertebrae that lies over the tail area
comminuted fracture bone breaks in several different locations and causes fragments
compact bone thick tissue that forms the outer layer of bone
compound fracture a break in the bone that causes the bone to break through and penetrate the skin
cranial drawer sign in and out movement or motion of the knee when the cruciate ligament is torn
cruciate ligament tear common knee injury to large breed dogs that tears the ligament over the patella
dewclaw the short inside bone that forms the first digit that acts as an opposable thumb
dislocation a bone that complete moves out of place
endosteum thin connective tissue covering inner bone
extension bending causing the joint to open and lengthen
femur large upper bone of the rear leg, thigh bone
fibrous joint fixed joint with little or no movement
fibula small bone that lies in the lower rear leg and in the back of the limb
flexion bending causing the joint to close and shorten
forelimb the front leg of an animal
fracture broken bone
growth plate area of bone in young animals that allows the bones to grow and mature as the animal ages and the cartilage turns to bone
hinge joint that opens and closes
hip dysplasia common genetic condition of large breed dogs where the ball and socket joint of the femur and pelvis becomes diseased
hock common term for the point of the rear leg where the tibia and fibula meet
humerus large upper bone of the forelimb
ilium first section of the pelvis
IM pin intramedullary pin
intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) common injury of the back in long backed breeds where inflammation and swelling occur when one vertebrae puts pressure on another
intramedually pin stainless steel pin or rod placed into the center of a broken bone to keep the bone in place as it heals
ischium section section of the pelvis
joints where two bones meet and allows a bending motion
ligament fibrous strands of tissue that attach bone to bone
loin lower back or lumbar area
lumbar third section of the vertebrae that lie over the lower back
luxation a bone that comes completely out of place when broken
mandible lower jaw
maxilla upper jaw
medullary cavity hollow center within bone where blood cells are produced
meniscus ligament that lies directly over the patella and forms an x shape over the cruciate ligament
metacarpal bones that form the long bones of the feet in the forelimbs
metatarsal bones that form the long bones of the feet in the hind limb
muscle structures located throughout the animal's body that attach to different locations and serve to protect, allow bending and movement, and aid in the strength of an animal
musculoskeletal system body system consisting of bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments
olecranon the elbow
ossification the formation of bones
patella knee cap that forms joint of the upper and lower rear leg
pelvic limb rear leg of an animal
pelvis hip bone
periosteum thin connective tissue covering outer bone
phalanges toes or digits
pivot joint that rotates around a fixed point
pubis third section of the pelvis
radius larger bone of the front of the lower forelimb
rib bone that attaches to individual thoracic vertebrae and protects the heart and lungs
sacral the fourth section of the vertebrae that lies over the pelvic area
sacrum area over the pelvis that is fused together and forms the highest point of the hip joint
scapula shoulder blade
simple fracture a break in the bone that may be complete or incomplete, but does not break the skin, also known as a closed fracture
sinuses small, open spaces of air located within the skull and nasal bones
skull the bone that holds and protects the brain and head area
spinal column extends from the base of the skull to the end of the tail and allows movement, also called the spine
spinal cord canal of nerves that run through the center of the vertebrae located in the spinal column
splint support applied to a broken bone with bandage and padding to allow a bone to heal
splint bone two small bones on the back of a horse's cannon bone that may become inflammed from large amounts of work and stress on the legs
sternum breastbone that protects the organs of the chest
subluxate bone partially out of place
suture where two fibrous joints meet, fine line where little or no movement occurs
synovial joint moveable joint in the area where two joints meet
tarsal the point of the rear leg where the tibia and fibula meet, ankle area
tarsus joint of the ankle of the rear limb
tendon fibrous strands of tissue that attach bone to muscle
thoracic second section of the vertebrae located over the chest area
tibia larger bone in the lower rear leg and lies in front
ulna small bone on the back of the lower forelimb
vertebrae individual bones of the spine that surround and protect the spinal cord

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