Why is electron arrangement important?
It determines certain properties of an elements such as conductivity and reactivity
In what way are electrons arranged in?
They are in energy levels, which are regions around the nucleus
Why are valence electrons important?
They determine how an element will react with other elements
Why are elements grouped?
They have similar properties
How are rows on the periodic table arranged?
The elements increase by atomic number and atomic mass
What type of elements are on the left side?
What type of elements are on the right side?
What type of elements are found in between?
What are the elements found in groups 3-12 and why?
They are transition metals because they do not follow the regular pattern
Why is hydrogen placed in group one even though it is unique?
It has only one valence electron
What is the similar characteristic of elements in the same period?
They have the same number of energy levels
What is the most abundant element in the universe?
What is group 1 called?
What do Alkali Metals contain?
How many valence electrons do Alkali Metals have?
How reactive are Alkali Metals?
What are shared properties of Alkali Metals?
Soft; silver colored; shiny; low density
What is group 2 called?
What does Alkaline-Earth Metals contain?
How many valence electrons do Alkaline-Earth Metals have?
How reactive are Alkaline-Earth Metals?
Very reactive, but not as reactive as Alkali Metals
What are some properties of Alkaline-Earth Metals?
Silver colored; more dense than Alkali Metals
What are groups 3-12 called?
What do Transition Metals contain?
How many valence electrons do Transition Metals have?
One or two
How reactive are Transition Metals?
Less reactive than Alkaline-Earth Metals
What are some properties of Transition Metals?
Shiny; good conductors of thermal energy and electric current; higher densities and melting points (except for mercury) than elements in groups 1 or 2
What is group 13 called?
How many valence electrons does Boron Group have?
How reactive are elements in Boron Group?
What is a shared property of elements in Boron Group?
Solid at room temperature
What is group 14 called?
How many valence electrons does Carbon Group contain?
How reactive is Carbon Group?
What is a shared property of the Carbon Group?
Solid at room temperature
What is group 15 called?
How many valence electrons does Nitrogen Group have?
How reactive are elements in Nitrogen Group?
What is a shared property of the Nitrogen Group?
All but nitrogen are solid at room temperature
What is group 16 called?
How many valence electrons does Oxygen Group have?
How reactive is Oxygen Group?
What is a shared property of Oxygen Group?
All but oxygen are solid at room temperature
What is group 17 called?
What do Halogens contain?
How many valence electrons do Halogens have?
How reactive are Halogens?
What are shared properties of Halogens?
Poor conductors of electricity and electric current; react violently with Alkali Metals to form salts; never found uncombined with nature
What is group 18 called?
What do Noble Gases contain?
How many valence electrons do Noble Gases have?
8 (two for helium)
How reactive are Noble Gases?
What are shared properties of Noble Gases?
Colorless, odorless, and gases at room temperature
What are the most reactive nonmetals?
What are the electrons outermost energy level?
How many electrons can the first energy level hold?
How many electrons can the second energy level hold?
Up to eight
What do atoms of MOST nonmetals have?
Most of them have a complete set of valence electrons
What do atoms of MOST metalloids have?
Most have about half a complete set of valence electrons
What do groups 1 & 2 tend to do when they react?
How many electrons do Halogens gain?
Which group has a complete set of valence electrons?
Noble Gases 18
What does mass equal?
What does the atomic number equal?
What do electrons equal?
How do you find the number of neutrons?