Chapter 31 The Endocrine System

Question Answer
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone released by the adrenal gland that controls blood pressure, releases choloesterol, and regulates the body's production of steroids
adrenal gland located cranial to the kidneys and produces and releases adrenaline and other hormones
adrenaline chemical that is released by the nervous system in times of stress to create a response in an animal's fight or flight instinct reaction
alopecia hair loss
amino acid simplest hormone that controls thyroid gland function
antidiuretic hormone ADH, hormone that promotes urine formation, water asborption, controls blood pressure, and changes control in water content
blood glucose blood sugar or insulin produced by the pancreas
cataracts opacity of the lens of the eye
chemical a change in the body that affects growth, sexual reproduction, and development
corpus luteum (CL) known as the yellow body and forms during the gestation period of a female to maintain pregnancy
Cushings disease common term for hyperadrenocorticism
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
Dexamethosone corticosteroid administered by injection to determine pituitary problems
diabetes insipidus condition that affects the water content in the bloodstream, causing the urine to become dilute
diabetes mellitus condition that causes high blood glucose levels
endocrine system excretory system that rides the body of waste materials
enzyme chemical reactions that change within the body and create and release hormones
epinephrine short acting chemical released during the fight or flight response
estrogen female reproductive hormone that begins the estrus cycle
estrus the heat cycle that releases hormones for reproduction
excrete the remove and rid the body of waste
fatty acid controls hormones involved in estrus in the female heat cycle
follicle stimulating hormone FSH, estrus hormone that allows for sperm production, regulates the female estrus cycle, forms the follicle during the breeding process, and produces estrogen
gestation length of pregnancy
gonadotropin GnRH, hormone produced and released to maintain a normal estrus cycle
homeostasis a balance within the body
hormone a chemical change in the body that regulates growth, sexual reproduction and development, metabolizes nutrients in cells
hyperadrenocorticism increased production problem within the adrenal gland that results in a pituitary tumor where the ACTH hormone is increased or an adrenal gland tumor when cortisol production is increased
hyperglycemia high blood glucose level
hyperkalemia increased potassium in the blood
hyperthyroidism condition that increased the thyroxine levels, common in cats
hypoadrenocorticism decreased production of steroids within the adrenal glands if the glands fail to function, also called Addison's disease
hypocalcemia decreased blood calcium
hypoglycemia decreased blood glucose levels
hypoatremia decrease of sodium and chlorine in the blood
hypothalamus developes from brain tissue while an animal is in the embryo stage, and the gland serves as a reservoir for hormones and allows for the release and regulation of hormones
hypothyroidism condition that decreases the thyroxine hormone, common in dogs
iatrogenic condition caused by hormones
lutenizing hormone (Lh) estrus hormone that allows the production of testosterone, allows for ovulation to occur, and forms the CL
Methimazole medicine for cats to treat hyperthyroidism, blocks the synthesis of thyroxine
norepinephrine long acting chemical hormone that increases the heart rate, blood pressure, blood low, blood glucose, and metabolism
ovulation release of the egg during estrus in the female to allow reproduction to occur
oxytocin hormone that releases and causes the muscles of the uterine wall to contract and milk production to begin in the mammary glands
pancreas organ with a dual role in endocrine and exocrine production and functions
parathyroid gland gland located below the thyroid gland
parturition the labor process
peptide largest hormone that controls protein in the body
pituitary gland lies at the base of the brain and controls hormone release in the endocrine glands
polydipsia increased thirst, PD
polyuria PU, increased urine production
posterior lobe back lobe of the pituitary gland that controls peptide hormones
prolactin hormone that controls milk production
radioactive iodine radiocat, treatment involving iodine being injected into the bloodstream to treat any areas that are overactive in thyroxine production, causing damage to thyroid tissue
somatotropin growth hormone that increases protein synthesis in the body, causing an increase in an animal's size
steroid occurs naturally in the body and regulates chemicals, such as cholesterol, in the body that control essential life functions
thymus a gland in young animals that has an immunologic function
thyroidectomy removal of the thyroid gland
thyroid gland the master gland, controls, secretes, and regulates hormone production within the body and is located in the neck area
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) hormone produced by the thyroid gland that controls the chemical thyroxine
thyroxine hormone that controls the actions of the thyroid gland and cell metabolism
T3 most potent and active thyroid gland hormone measured in the bloodstream to diagnose thyroid gland problems
T4 thyroid hormone converted into tissue and breaks down fats and helps control cholesterol

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