Chapter 37 Animal Nutrition vocabulary

Question Answer
abortion a pregnant animal looses the fetus
amino acids building blocks of proteins that form chain like structures
animal nutrition science of determining how animals use food in the body and all body processes that transform food into body tissues and energy for activity, and the process by which animal's grow, live, reproduce, and work
antioxidants vitamins that boost the body's immune system
automatic feeder specialized equipoment that is computerized and set to release certain amounts of food at specified times throughout the day
balanced ration diet that contains all the nutrients required by an animal in correct and specific amounts
biological value percentage on a food label that describes the quality of the food source
body condition scoring rating of how an animal appears in looks and weight based on its ideal body weight
calories unit of measurement that defines the energy in food
carbohydrates nutrients that provide energy for body functions and allow for body structure formation and make up the largest part of an animal's diet needs
concentrates food sources that are provided to an animal as an additional nutrient source when the primary food source is not adequate of abundant
concentration determined by the amount of food fed divded by the percentage of dry matter and how it is delivered to the animal
dehydration water loss by the body
digestion the process of breaking down food from larger particles into smaller particles for use by the body in order to function
disaccharide a double sugar
double sugar two particles of carbohydrates that form the building blocks of nutrients and are called disaccharides
dry matter the amount of nutrients in a food source without the water content
essential fatty acids nutrients necessary in a diet and produce natural hormones needed within the body
fats concentrated course of energy, also called lipids
fat soluble vitamins that are stored in fat and released when needed within the body and include vitamins A,D,E,K
fatty acids oils that are products of fat sources that may be used as nutrients or supplements within a diet
feed materials that animal eat to obtain nutrients and nutrition
feedstuff ingredients in animal food that determine nutrient content
fiber material from plant cells that is left after other nutrients are digested
food analysis the process of determining the nutrients in food and prepared mixes to assure it serves as a balanced ration
forages plant based sources of nutrition that are high in fiber, also called roughages
free choice feeding method of animals that allows animal to eat when they want food
growth diet specialized food formulated to increase the size of muscles, bones, organs, and body weight of young offspring
hydrolysis chemical process of breaking cells down into small particles
ideal weight breed standard based on an animal's breed, age, species, purpose, or use and health status
kilocalories amount of energy to raise 1 gram of water by 1 degree, written as kcal
lactation diet specialized food provided to breeding females that have completed the gestation phase and are currently producing milk for their offspring
lipids concentrated source of energy that contains the highest amount of energy of all nutrients
macrominerals minerals needed in large amounts, such as calcium
maintenance diet specialized diet fed to animals that may be working of competing, the goal is to keep the animal at a specific and constant ideal weight
microminerals minerals needed in small amounts, such as iron
minerals nutrients needed in every area of the body but are found mostly in the bones and teeth, used by the body based on the animal's needs and mineral availability
monosaccharide a simple sugar
nonessential fatty acids nutrients that are not neccessary within the body and are used as additions to a diet when necessary
nutrient any single class of food or group of like foods that aids in the support of life and makes it possible for animals to grow or provides energy for physiological processes in life
palatability how well food tastes and is eated by an animal
permanent pasture grass sources that regrows each year without the need of planting or seeding
polysaccharide long chain of simple sugars
proteins nutrients that are essential for growth and tissue repair
ration total amount of food an animal needs within a 24 hour time frame
reduced calorie diet specialized food given to an animal that is overweight of less active due to their health status
reproduction diet specialized food given to breeding animals for additional nutrient needs
scheduled feedings a set amount of food given at specific times during the day
senior diet specialized food given to geriatric or older animals over a specific age for their species that require certain nutrient levels due to age
simple sugar single particle of carbohydrates that form the building blocks of nutrients and are called monosaccharides
starches plant or grain materials that provide fiber and bulk in an animal's diet and converts to glucose or sugar during digestions
sugar type of carbohydrate that forms the simplest type of nutrient
supplements additives placed into the diet in solid or liquid form when needed by the animal
temporary pastures grass source that does not regrow each year and needs to be planted to seeded
trace minerals minerals needed in small amounts, also called microminerals
trimester the first three months of pregnancy when additional nutrition must be provided
vitamins nutrients needed in small amounts for life and health maintenance
water nutrient that makes up 75% of the body and provides several functions within the body, including body temperature regulation, body shape maintenance, transporting nutrients within the body's cells, aiding in digestion of food, breaking down food particles
water soluble vitamins that are not stored within the body, as dissolved by water and therefore needed in daily doses by the body to work
work diet specialized food given to animals that use a large amount of energy for work or an activity

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