Chapter 4 bio.

a wide range of environmental conditions that shapes communities.
Climate is a global factor that produces?
atmospheric gases.
The loss of heat to space is slowed by
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. angle of heating.
Earth has three main climate zones because of the differences in latitude and
Weather differs from ____________________ in that weather can change on a daily basis and is not
considered a description of year-to-year conditions of temperature and precipitation.
Five factors are: the trapping of heat by the atmosphere, latitude, the transport of heat by winds and ocean
currents, amount of precipitation, the shape and elevation of landmasses.
List five factors that contribute to global climate patterns.
Solar energy has an important effect on the temperature of the atmosphere. Atmospheric gases, such as carbon
dioxide, methane, and water vapor, do not allow heat energy to pass out of the atmosphere. This natural
situation in which heat is retained by these greenhouse gases is called the greenhouse effect. This effect
provides a natural insulating blanket around Earth and maintains its temperature range.
Describe the greenhouse effect and explain how it maintains Earth’s temperature range
Cold water near the poles sinks and then flows parallel to the ocean bottom, eventually rising again in warmer
regions through a process called upwelling. Meanwhile, surface water is moved by winds. In both cases, the
water flow creates ocean currents. Like air currents, ocean currents transport heat energy within the biosphere.
Surface ocean currents warm or cool the air above them, thus affecting the weather and climate of nearby
Explain how ocean currents originate and affect Earth’s climates.
. number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem
Which is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem?
occupy different niches within the tree
Several species of warblers can live in the same spruce tree ONLY because they
occupy different niches.
. Different species can share the same habitat, but competition among them is reduced if they
mutualism because the flower provides the insect with food, and the insect pollinates the
The symbiotic relationship between a flower and the insect that feeds on its nectar is an example of
Secondary succession begins on soil, and primary succession begins on newly exposed
What is one difference between primary and secondary succession?
further disturbances . introduction of nonnative species
. long-term climate changes
Which factor can influence continual change in an ecosystem?
In primary succession, pioneer plants help rocks to break up in the process of soil formation. They also
contribute organic material to the forming soil in which plants can grow.
Describe an important role that pioneer species play in primary succession
Whale-fall succession takes place on the deep, permanently dark ocean floor where there is no light for
photosynthesis and no plants can grow
Explain why plants do not occur in the succession of a whale-fall community as they do in land-ecosystem
. ANS:
The three main classes of symbiotic relationships are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. In
mutualism, both species benefit from the relationship. commensalism, one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. In parasitism, one member benefits by obtaining all its nutritional needs from the
host. The host can be damaged, but is usually not killed.
. Name and define the three main classes of symbiotic relationships. Give examples of each.
a forested park in a desert city
An example of a place with a microclimate is
tundra and desert
Which two biomes have the least amount of precipitation?
The climate within a small area often differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area and is
called a microclimate. An example of a microclimate is the redwood forests on parts of California’s northern
coast. Some areas a short distance inland from these forests are desertlike, inhabited by cacti and other
drought-resistant plants.
What is a microclimate? Give an example.
amount of salts, nutrients, and oxygen dissolved in the water
The chemistry of aquatic ecosystems is determined by the
streamlined bodies
Which is NOT an adaptation that organisms have for living in flowing water?
An aquatic environment’s water ____________________ refers to the amount of dissolved salts, nutrients,
and oxygen in the water.
A swamp is different from a lake as a freshwater ecosystem because a swamp is a(an)
____________________ ecosystem.
The main zones of the marine biome are the photic zone, the aphotic zone, the intertidal zone, the coastal
ocean zone, the open ocean zone, and the benthic zone.
List the six main zones of the marine biome
pioneer species
first species to colonize?
What is the average conditions of the atmosphere in a part area refered to as?
weather: day-to-day
climate: year-to-year
What is the difference between weather and climate
transport of heat by wind
shape and elevation
Name three factors to contribute to earths climate:
sun light and lagitude
Earth has 3 main climate zones beacues of 2 things, what are they?
way it gets food and reproduses
Name a biologaical aspect of an organisms niche:
how an organism makes a living.
Define an organisms niche
tree for birds
example of habitat
no two species can occupy the same niche
What is the competitive exclusion principle
a pack of wolves kill a deer this is an ex of
interaction where one animal feeds on plants
is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits.
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
biome tundra
low temps
little precipitation
polar and moutain
what landforms are not classifies into biomes
coastal ocean system
. Which aquatic ecosystem is warmed
: one species benefits
distance from equator and depth
Aquatic habitat temps. depend on?
In the photic zone
Where in a marine ecosystem are zooplankton and plankton located?
Predators keep the population of their prey from getting too large by eating the prey animals.
How do predators affect the population of their prey?

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