Chapter 4 Eco Issues

Ecological succession
The series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time
Primary succession
Begins in areas with no remnants of an older community .It occurs on bare rock surfaces where no soil exists.
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Pioneer species
The first species to live in an area of primary succession
Secondary succession
occurs when a disturbance changes a community without completely destroying it.
Climax communities
a mature,relatively stable ecosystem.
Ecosystems change over time, especially after disturbances, as some ________ die out and _____ species move in.
different, increases
over the course of succession, the number of ________species present typically _____
_________ explosions can create new land or sterilize existing areas.
primary succession
succession that begins in an area with no remnents of an older community.
for example ,in Glacier Bay ,Alasaka ,a retreating glacier exposed _______ rock.
100, forest.
over the course of more than _____years, a series of changes has led to the hemlock and spruce ____ currently found in the area.
changes in this community will ________ for centuries.
Pioneer speceies
first species to colonize barren areas.
Ex. one ecological pioneer that grows on bare rock is _______ a mutualistic symbiosis between a fungus and an alga.
over time ,lichens convert ,or ____ atmospheric _____ into useful forms for other organisms, break down rock, and add _______ material to form _________
certain ________ like those that colonized krakatau early on are also pioneer species.
Secondary Succession
Existing communities aren’t completely destroyed
faster,soil ,rapidly
Secondary succession proceeds ____ than primary succession ,in part because ____ survives the disturbance. As a result ,new and surviving vegetation can regrow ________
1. wild life 2. hurricane .3. other natural disturbance
Secondary succession often follows
we think of these events as disasters,but many species are ____ to them.
Although forest fires kill some trees,for example ,other trees are spared ,and fire can stimulate their _______ to germinate.
1. logging 2.farming
Secondary succession can also follow human activities like
This series shows secondary succession taking place in ______ fields of the Carolinas’ Piedmont.
over the last century, these fields have passed through several stages and matured into ________ forest. Changes will continue for years to come.
Every organism changes the _________ it lives in.
alters, resources.
one model of succession suggests that as one species ______ its environment, other species find it easier to compete for ______ and survive.
As organic matter continues to __________ other species move in and ______ the environment further.
species, niches
over time ,more and more __________ can find suitable ________ and survive
Do ecosystems return to ‘normal’ following a disturbance?
secondary succession in a healthy ecosystem following natural disturbances often reproduces the original climax community .Ecosystem may or may not recover extensive human caused disturbances.
Ecologist s used to think that succession in a given area always proceeds through the same stages to produce a specific and _________ climax community.
same, uniform.
Recent studies, however, have shown that succession doesn’t always follows the _____ path, and that climax communities are not always ___________ and stable.
secondary succession in healthy ecosystem following natural disturbances often reproduces the original __________ community.
However ,detailed studies show that some climax communities are not_________
Often,they have areas in varying stages of secondary succession following _____ disturbances that took place at different times.
some climax communities are disturbed so often that can’t really be called ______________
Microclimate, soil
Clearing and farming of tropical rain forests,for example can change the __________ and ____ enough to prevent regrowth of the original community.
The series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time.
1. What is ecological Succession?
It begins in areas with no remanents of an older community occurs on bare surfaces ,where no soil exists.
2. What is primary succession?
secondary succession
3.When a disturbances changes a community without removing the soil ,what type of succession follows? species alters its environment other species find it easier to complete for more resources to survive 2. As organic matter accummulates other species move in and change the environment.3.over time more and more species can find suitable niches and survive.
4.Describe the process of succession in an ecosystem.?
soil survives ,so many plants can regrow more rapidly.
5. Why does secondary succession typically proceed faster than primary succession?
range of conditions under which it can grow or repoduce
place where the organisms lives
consists of all the physical and biological conditions in which a species lives and they way the species obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce; it’s job
any necessity of life
water, nutrients, light, food, or space
types of resources
organisms use the same limited resources
competition occurs when
in one species dying out or moving away
direct competition between species often results
no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in exactly the same habitat at the same time
competitive exclusion principle
number and type of species in a community
competition determines
occurs when an organism (predator) captures and eats another (prey)
interaction that occurs when an animal (herbivore) feeds on producers.
dramatic changes in the structure of a community
changes in keystone species results in
when 2 species lively closely together
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
3 types of symbiosis
both species benefit from the relationship
one species benefits by living in or on another and the other is harmed
one species benefits and other is neither helped nor
ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental conditions
range of tolerance
when an environmental condition extends in either direction beyond an organism’s optimum range
nesting space, shelter, types of food, places to feed
animal resources include
causing species to divide resources, helps determine the number and kind of species in a community and the niche each species occupies
how does competition shape communities?
when organisms attempt to use the same limite ecological resources in the same place at the same time
When does competition occur?
plant roots compete for resources such as water and sunlight
example of competition
food, mates, places to live and raise their young
animals compete for
competition can occur between members of the same species
intraspecific competition
competition between members of different
interspecific competition
no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in exactly the same habitat at exactly the same
competition exclusion principle
birds of prey
example of predator
white tailed deer
example of herbivores
species on which other species in the ecosystem depend on; changes in its population cause dramatic
keystone species
example of keystone species
anenome and clown fish
example of mutualism
flea, tick. lice, and leech
example of parasitism
barnacles attaching themselves to whales
commensalism example
A niche consists of all physical and
biological conditions in which a species lives and the way it obtains what it needs to survive. basically its job; a habitat is just where the organism lives
difference between niche and habitat.
When organisms try to use the same resources
What is competition?
day to day conditions of Earth’s atmosphere
average condition of temperature and precipitation in a region over long periods
can vary over short distances
produces microclimates
variations of climate over short distances
solar energy trapped in the biosphere, by latitude, and by transport of heat by winds and ocean currents
factors that affect climate
greenhouse effect
temperature on earth stays within a range suitable for life due to the
trapping of heat by gases in the atmosphere
greenhouse effect
different latitudes to receive less or more intense solar energy
earth’s curvature causes
polar, temperate, tropical
three main climate zones
three main climate zones
unequal distribution of the sun’s heat on Earth’s surface results in
unequal heating of earth’s surface
causes winds and ocean currents
heat and moisture through the biosphere
winds and currents move
Local climatic conditions that differ from the general climate of a region
year after year patterns of temperature and
What defines a climate
1. reflected back into space
2. Absorbed and converted to heat
What 2 things can happen to solar energy when it hits the Earth’s surface
CO2, methane, water vapor
3 green house gases
differences in latitude and unequal distribution of heat
3 main climate zones are caused by
trap heat in the atmosphere
What effect do co2 and methane have on earth’s temp?
30 degrees celsius cooler
how would the temp. on earth change without the greenhouse effect
earth’s tilted axis
What causes solar radiation to strike different parts of earth’s surface at an angle that varies throughout the year
the equator
in which location is the sun almost directly overhead at noon all year
wind and ocean currents
Patterns of heating and cooling result in
warm air is ______ dense than cold air
surface water moved by _____ results in ocean currents
sinking of cold water near the poles
deeping ocean currents are caused by
climate, soil type
what abiotic factors characterize biomes
plant and animal life
What biotic factors characterize biomes
latitude; heat transported by winds; proximity to an ocean or mountian range
What factors affect global climate
earth’s terrestrial ecosystems into at least 10 different groups of regional climate communities
temperature and precipitation
each biome is associated with seasonal patterns of
shows the average temp. and precipitation at a given location during each month of the year
climate diagram
there is considerable ______ among plant and animal communities within a defined biome
exposure, elevation, local soil conditions
variations in animal and plant life in defined biome caused by
select an animal and describe its niche. Be sure to include the resources the animal needs and physical and biological aspects of that niche in your description
1. lichens colonize rocks and begin weathering them down
2. mosses can grow with the weathered rock and dust
3.Grass starts to grow as more dust and organic matter builds up from dead moss and lichens
4. More organic matter forms for soil from dead grass, moss, and lichen shrubs start to grow
5. As all of these die, the soil becomes more enriched and trees start to grow.
6. Leaves from the trees drop which further enrich soil and more plants start to grow eventually.
describe the stages of primary succession in land environments mentioning the role played by grasses, lichens, trees, mosses, and shrubs
low rainfall, hot or warm summers cold winters. Dominated by grasses.
Identify some characteristics of temperate grasslands
explain why different regions of temperate grassland share characteristics in spite of the distance between the locations; mention climate, climate zones, biomes, and biotic and abiotic factors

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