Chapter 45 and 46 Test

tropical rainforest
A biome with complex structure, warm weather, plentiful rainfall, and diverse species is a
A biome characterized by hot days, cold nights, and cacti is the
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A forest found in a broad belt in northern Eurasia and North America, with conifers and swamps, is called the
A small marine amphipod has recently been discovered that carries a bad-tasting organism on its back, which is contrary to its normal behavior. If a fish ingests the pair, it immediately spits them back out. If the amphipod is alone, however, it is readily eaten. There is no apparent benefit or harm in this relationship for the “backpack” organism. This is probably a case of
A treeless region with little rainfall in the far north is the
A treeless region with little rainfall in the far north is the
All food chains begin with a photosynthetic producer.
lentic systems
All of the following are terrestrial biomes EXCEPT
a community
All the populations of all the different species interacting with one another in the same environment is called
all of these
Among the many functions of wetlands is (are)
-providing food and habitats for fish, waterfowl, and wildlife.
-absorbing storm and overflow waters.
-purifying water by filtering it and breaking down toxic wastes and nutrients.
Approximately what percentage of the energy in one trophic level is incorporated into the next trophic level?
both the biotic and the abiotic components of the local environment.
An ecosystem contains
all of these
As animals take in food energy approximately 10% of it is made available to the next level in the food chain. Which of the following is one of the ways in which the energy is used by the organism and not passed along?
-cellular respiration
all of these
Clements proposed the climax-pattern model of succession. Governing factors for this model include
-each successive community preparing the way for the next.
-soil conditions.
soil type
Climate is affected and/or characterized by all of the following factors EXCEPT
food chains are only 10 to 20% efficient at each step, and top carnivores are therefore limited by the availability of food in their range.
Compared with the numbers of grasshoppers or deer, there are not a lot of mountain lions. The reason that large and fierce top-level carnivores are rare in an ecosystem is that
The increase number of Batesian mimics dilutes or weakens the protection afforded by the warning color pattern, but the addition of more Mullerian mimics only strengthens the protective mimicry complex.
Consider the consequences of a harmless prey that evolves toward mimicry of a model that has an antipredator defense (Batesian mimicry). What happens to the effectiveness of this defense as more and more prey in the population are harmless mimics? Then consider what happens when a species with bad taste evolves to resemble a model that stings (Mullerian mimicry).
Due to it’s high productivity and biological diversity this biome is considered the “nursery” of the sea.
foraged in different places of the tree canopy.
Ecologist Robert MacArthur observed that five species of similar warblers coexisted on spruce trees because they
Energy flow in an ecosystem begins with
converted to heat, which is no longer useful.
Energy flow in an ecosystem is not cyclic because energy is
clouds – streams – river – wetlands – delta – ocean
Identify the correct sequence that freshwater will flow through.
all of these
Excluding humans, which group of organisms is most likely to change the abiotic factors within an ecosystem?
primary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.
In a grazing food chain,
the same habitat but different niches
In an Asian rice paddy, carp eat decaying material from around the base of rice plants while a snail scrapes algae from the leaves, stems, and roots of the same plant. They can survive at the same time in the same rice paddy because they occupy
possible since carbon cycles through the biosphere.
Is it possible that the carbon atoms in your body may have once made up the living tissues of another person or animal in earlier times? This is
an example of resource partitioning.
MacArthur discovered that five species of warblers coexisted on spruce trees by foraging on the same caterpillar, but in different places of the tree canopy. This is
Major regional groups of interacting terrestrial ecosystems, characterized by climate and geography, are called
time for development of the soil.
Primary succession takes much longer than secondary succession because it involves
Temperate deciduous forests are characterized by
realized niche
The actual conditions under which an organism exists in nature constitute its
ocean (marine aquatic)
The largest biome on Earth is the
The only heterotrophs required in an ecosystem are
The relationship between plants and their pollinators is a good example of parasitism.
limnetic zone
The sunlit portion of a lake is specifically referred to as the
The tropical grassland in Africa is called the
There are tubeworms and clams that live at the bottom of the ocean near thermal vents that do not have direct access to sunlight so they derive their energy from
swamps; marshes
Wetlands are generally classified by their vegetation. Wetlands dominated by trees and shrubs are _______ and wetlands dominated by grasses and sedges are _____.
tropical forest – deciduous forest – montane coniferous forest – alpine tundra
What is the correct order of biome distribution starting at the lowest elevation and moving to higher elevations?
What is the correct order of events during primary succession?
What is the correct sequence of organisms if a community is going through secondary succession?
a. grasses establish themselves in the community
b. shrubs establish themselves in the community
c. soil formation occurs
d. trees establish themselves in the community
The ocean holds it’s temperature longer than land masses.
What is the main reason that the oceans play a larger role in determining the temperature of air masses?
competitive exclusion
What occurs when two species with very similar niches live in an overlapping range?
Which biome is characterized by rainfall under 25 cm/year, hot days, cold nights, and quickly blooming plants?
human – carnivores
Which of the following associations between organism and nutrient source is incorrect?
herbivore – eats producers and performs photosynthesis
Which of the following associations is incorrect?
Which of the following biomes is characterized by little rainfall, permafrost, and an average temperature below 0°C?
Which of the following biomes is characterized by rich soils, insufficient rainfall for trees, and many herbivores?
all of these
Which of the following features is not part of the ecological niche of a white tailed deer?
-The availability of woods for it to use as cover in order to escape from predators.
-The presence of a water source within its habitat.
-The number of acorns it consumes during the fall.
A decline in the numbers of prey causes a decline in the number of predators.
Which of the following is (are) correct in a predator-prey cycle?
fundamental niche
All of the conditions under which an organism could conceivably survive and reproduce constitute its

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